buy prozac online | buy aciphex online | buy propecia online | buy seroquel online | buy diovan online | buy singulaironline

The History of Thanksgiving: Pilgrims and Native Americans


Page 4 of 12

Thanksgiving Day is a day set aside each year in the United States and Canada for giving thanks and remembering the blessings of life. People may celebrate the day with family gatherings, feasting, and prayer. For many people, Thanksgiving calls forth memories of tables crowded with food, happy reunions, football games, and religious contemplation.

 

World Book Explains: Why did the Pilgrims leave England? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, explains why the Pilgrims left England. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

For thousands of years, people in many parts of the world have held harvest festivals. The American Thanksgiving Day grew out of these harvest home celebrations. For this reason, the holiday takes place late in the fall, after the crops have been gathered.

 

More than any other American holiday, Thanksgiving Day is surrounded with tradition, myth, and legend. Popular accounts of the first thanksgiving at Plymouth Colony—held by American Indians and English pilgrims in 1621—do not stand up to the historical facts known about the gathering. Further, for many modern American Indians, the holiday also serves as a sad reminder that the arrival of Europeans ultimately had many tragic consequences for them. But one legacy of thanksgiving that has endured and remains true to the historical record is the theme of generosity—for three days in the autumn of 1621, some of the native inhabitants of New England joined more recent arrivals from England in sharing the gifts of the land with each other. Each November, Americans continue this tradition with family and friends.

 

American Indians have a long tradition of celebrations of thanks for the bounties of the earth. Europeans have also held autumn harvest festivals and feasts for centuries. In 1619, a group of 38 English settlers arrived at Berkeley Plantation, near what is now Charles City, Virginia, on December 4. The group’s charter required that the day of arrival be observed yearly as a day of thanksgiving to God.

The World Book Encyclopedia. For more fun learning resources, check out our encyclopedia kids section.

 

<

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

 


Who were the Pilgrims?

 

Pilgrims were the early English settlers of New England. The first group landed at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620. The Pilgrims established Plymouth Colony along Cape Cod Bay.

 

World Book Explains: Who were the Pilgrims? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, explains who the Pilgrims were. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

The early Pilgrims included many Separatists. These people were a minority within the body of English Protestants known as Puritans. The Puritans wished to adopt reforms that would purify the Church of England, the nation's official church. The Separatists decided that they could not reform the church from within. They separated from the church and set up their own congregations.

 

In 1606, William Brewster helped form a small Separatist congregation in Scrooby, England. Separatist groups were illegal in England, and in 1607 the Scrooby congregation tried to flee to Amsterdam, Holland, to avoid arrest. They were caught, but most of them left England the next year. In 1609, the congregation settled in the Dutch town of Leiden.

 

After several years in Holland, some Separatists began to fear that their children would be more Dutch than English. As foreigners, they could not buy land or work in skilled trades. In addition, war had begun in Europe. The new land of America appealed to them. They offered to establish an English colony in America and found a group of English merchants willing to finance their expedition. In September 1620, 41 members of the Leiden congregation sailed for America on the ship Mayflower, along with 61 other English people. The group reached what is now Provincetown Harbor on Nov. 21, 1620. They explored the nearby coast and soon chose Plymouth as the site of their colony.

 

The term Pilgrim may have come from William Bradford, the second governor of Plymouth Colony. Bradford wrote that "they knew they were pilgrims" when they left Holland. However, for 200 years these people were known as "Founders" or "Forefathers," rather than "Pilgrims."

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia. For more fun learning resources, check out our encyclopedia children section.

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

The Mayflower

 

Mayflower was the ship that carried the first Pilgrims to America, in 1620. The ship also carried a group of “strangers” who did not follow the Separatist religious practices of the Pilgrims. TheMayflower was built around 1610 and probably had three masts and two decks. It probably measured about 90 feet (27 meters) long and weighed about 160 long tons (163 metric tons). Its master, Christopher Jones, was a quarter-owner.

 

World Book Explains: What was life like on the Mayflower? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, explains what life was like on the Mayflower. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

 

The Mayflower left America on April 15 (April 5), 1621. Historians are not certain what happened to the ship after it returned to England. A 1624 appraisal of the ship following Jones’s death describes it as “in ruins.”

 

The Mayflower II, built the way the original Mayflower is thought to have looked, is kept in Plymouth, Massachusetts. In 1957, it crossed the Atlantic in 54 days. The Britons who built the replica gave it to the American people as a symbol of friendship.

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

 

The Mayflower Compact

 

World Book Explains: What was the Mayflower Compact? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, talks about the Mayflower Compact. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

"In ye name of God Amen. We whose names are underwritten, the loyall subjects of our dread soveraigne Lord King James, by ye grace of God, of Great Britaine, Franc, & Ireland king, defender of ye faith, &c. Haveing undertaken, for ye glorie of God, and advancemente of ye Christian faith and honour of our king & countrie, a voyage to plant ye first colonie in ye Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly & mutualy in ye presence of God, and one of another, covenant, & combine ourselves togeather into a Civill body politick; for our better ordering, & preservation & furtherance of ye ends aforesaid; and by vertue hereof to enacte, constitute, and frame such just & equall Lawes, ordinances, Acts, constitutions, & offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meete & convenient for ye generall good of ye colonie: unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witnes whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cap-Codd ye -11- of November, in ye year of ye raigne of our soveraigne Lord King James of England, France, & Ireland ye eighteenth, and of Scotland ye fiftie fourth. Ano Dom. 1620."

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

The passengers of the Mayflower

 

World Book Explains: Was there romance among the Pilgrims? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, talks about love among the Pilgrims. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

William Bradford, the second governor of Plymouth, wrote a history of the Pilgrims' adventure aboard theMayflower. He listed the ship's passengers as follows:

Mr. John Carver; Kathrine, his wife; Desire Minter; & 2. man-servants, John Howland, Roger Wilder; William Latham, a boy; & a maid servant, & a child yt was put to him, called Jasper More. 

 

Mr. William Brewster; Mary, his wife; with 2. sons, whose names were Love & Wrasling; and a boy was put to him called Richard More; and another of his brothers. The rest of his childeren were left behind, & came over afterwards.

 

Mr. Edward Winslow; Elizabeth, his wife; & 2. men servants, caled Georg Sowle and Elias Story; also a litle girle was put to him, caled Ellen, the sister of Richard More.

 

William Bradford, and Dorothy, his wife; having but one child, a sone, left behind, who came afterward.

 

Mr. Isaack Allerton, and Mary, his wife; with 3. children, Bartholmew, Remember, & Mary; and a servant boy, John Hooke.

 

Mr. Samuell Fuller, and a servant, caled William Butten. His wife was [left] behind, & a child, which came afterwards.

 

John Crakston, and his sone, John Crakston.

 

Captin Myles Standish, and Rose, his wife.

 

Mr. Christopher Martin, and his wife, and 2. servants, who were Salamon Prower and John Langemore.

 

Mr. William Mullines, and his wife, and 2. children, Joseph & Priscila; and a servant, Robart Carter.

 

Mr. William White, and Susana, his wife, and one sone, caled Resolved, and one borne a ship-board caled Perigriene; & 2. servants, named William Holbeck & Edward Thomson.

 

Mr. Steven Hopkins, & Elizabeth, his wife, and 2. children, caled Giles, and Constanta, a doughter, both by a former wife; and 2. more by this wife, caled Damaris & Oceanus; the last was borne at sea; and 2. servants, called Edward Doty and Edward Litster.

 

Mr. Richard Warren; but his wife and childeren were lefte behind, and came afterwards.

 

John Billinton, and Elen, his wife; and 2. sones, John & Francis.

 

Edward Tillie, and Ann, his wife; and 2. children that were their cossens, Henery Samson and Humillity Coper.

 

John Tillie, and his wife; and Eelizabeth, their dougter.Francis Cooke, and his sone John. But his wife & other children came afterwards.

 

Thomas Rogers, and Joseph, his sone. His other children came afterwards.

 

Thomas Tinker, and his wife, and a son.

 

John Rigdale, and Alice, his wife.James Chilton, and his wife, and Mary, their daugter. They had an other doughter, yt was maried, came afterward.

 

Edward Fuller, and his wife, and Samuell, their sonne.

 

John Turner, and 2. sones. He had a daughter came some years after to Salem, wher she is now living.

 

Francis Eaton, and Sarah, his wife, and Samuell, their sone, a yong child. Moyses Fletcher, John Goodman, Thomas Williams, Digerie Preist, Edmond Margeson, Peter Browne, Richard Britterige, Richard Clarke, Richard Gardenar, Gilbart Winslow.

 

John Alden was hired for a cooper, at South-Hampton, wher the ship victuled; and being a hopefull yong man, was much desired, but left to his owne liking to go or stay when he came here; but he stayed, and maryed here.

 

John Allerton and Thomas Enlish were both hired, the later to goe mr [master] of a shalop here, and ye other was reputed as one of ye company, but was to go back (being a seaman) for the help of others behind. But they both dyed here, before the ship returned.

 

There were also other 2. seamen hired to stay a year here in the country, William Trevore, and one Ely. But when their time was out, they both returned.These, bening aboute a hundred sowls, came over in this first ship; and began this worke, which God of his goodnes hath hithertoo blesed; let his holy name have ye praise.

 

Although 102 Pilgrims sailed from England, one died and another was born during the voyage. So 102 reached the harbor at Provincetown, Mass. Four more died and one was born there. The group that landed at Plymouth consisted of 99 Pilgrims.

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

The founding of Plymouth Colony

 

World Book Explains: What was life like for the Pilgrims in Plymouth Colony? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, talks about the daily lives of the Pilgrims. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

Plymouth Colony was the second permanent English settlement in America. The colonists who settled there arrived from England on a ship called the Mayflower.They became known as Pilgrims because of their wanderings in search of the freedom to practice their particular interpretation of Protestantism. In 1620, they established their colony on the rocky western shore of Cape Cod Bay in southeastern Massachusetts. This region had been called Plimouth on John Smith's map of New England, drawn in 1614. The Pilgrims established the Congregational Church in America. Plymouth Colony remained independent until 1691, when it became part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.

 

The people we now call Pilgrims were Separatists—that is, Puritans who had separated from the Church of England. The government of England arrested and tried the Separatists because of their nonconformity (refusal to belong to the Church of England). In 1608, a group of Separatists moved to the Netherlands. After a few years, some of them became dissatisfied and felt that things would be better in a new land. They secured financial backing in London and, in 1620, left the Netherlands in a small ship called the Speedwell. The ship stopped in England, and the expedition was joined by other English people who hoped to better their lives. The group left England in theSpeedwell and a larger ship, the Mayflower. The Speedwell proved unseaworthy, and the fleet returned to England twice. Finally, in September 1620, the Mayflower sailed alone from Plymouth, England. It carried 102 passengers, including women and children.

 

A rough passage of 65 days brought the Mayflower to Cape Cod on November 20 (November 10, according to the calendar then in use). The Pilgrims had promised to settle somewhere within the limits of the original grant of the Virginia Company of Plymouth. But errors in navigation led them to the New England region. Adverse winds and the shoals off Cape Cod forced the Mayflower to stay north. The ship anchored in Provincetown harbor inside the tip of Cape Cod on November 21.

 

The Pilgrim leaders were uncertain of their legal position because they were in the area without authority. They also knew they would need discipline among themselves. To solve these problems, 41 men aboard the Mayflower met and signed the Mayflower Compact, in which they agreed to form a government and to obey its “just and equal laws.” The Pilgrims elected John Carver as their governor.

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

The landing at Plymouth

World Book Explains: Did the Pilgrims really land on Plymouth Rock? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, discusses whether the Pilgrims really landed on Plymouth Rock. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

The sea-weary Pilgrims were anxious to learn more about the country. For almost a month, several small groups explored the coast around Cape Cod Bay while the rest remained aboard. One of the groups had to take refuge on an island in Plymouth harbor during a blinding snowstorm. On Dec. 21, 1620, this group landed at Plymouth. There they found a stream with clear water, some cleared land, and a high hill that could be fortified. This site was once an Indian village, but smallpox had wiped out all the Indians in 1617. The Pilgrims decided that this would be their new home. The Mayflower sailed across Cape Cod Bay and anchored in Plymouth harbor on December 26.

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

The First Thanksgiving

 

The first year was a difficult one for the Pilgrims. Poor and inadequate food, strenuous work, and changing weather made the settlers susceptible to sickness. The colony lost about half its members that first winter.

 

World Book Explains: How did Native Americans help Pilgrims? Philip Wynne, Native Mashpee Wampanoag at Plimoth Plantation, explains how Native Americans helped the Pilgrims. 

 

But help came one spring morning, when an Indian walked into the village and introduced himself as Samoset. He later returned with Squanto. Samoset and Squanto introduced the Pilgrims to Massasoit, the sachem (chief) of the Wampanoag tribe that controlled all southeastern Massachusetts. Carver and the chief exchanged gifts and arranged a treaty of peace. Soon afterward, the Mayflower sailed for England, leaving the Pilgrims. After Carver died in April 1621, William Bradford became governor of the colony.

 

World Book Explains: What was the first Thanksgiving like? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, talks about the first Thanksgiving from a Pilgrim perspective. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

The Pilgrims, under Squanto's direction, caught alewives (a fish in the herring family) and used them as fertilizer in planting corn, pumpkins, and beans. They also hunted and fished for food. Following the bountiful harvest of 1621, the Pilgrims held a three-day feast similar to the “harvest home” festivals held in England. Massasoit and 90 Wampanoag Indians joined the 50 or so colonists in food and sports. The food included fowl provided by the colonists andvenison (deer meat) provided by the Indians. The feast inspired the holiday celebrated in the United States as Thanksgiving.

 

World Book Explains: What was the first Thanksgiving like (Native American perspective)? Philip Wynne, Native Mashpee Wampanoag at Plimoth Plantation, talks about the first Thanksgiving from a Native American perspective. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

Life in Plymouth Colony

 

World Book Explains: What was life like for the Pilgrims in Plymouth Colony? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, talks about the daily lives of the Pilgrims. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

The Pilgrims received legal rights to settle at Plymouth under a patent granted by the Council for New England in 1621. Governor Bradford received a new patent, the Warwick Patent, in 1630. It granted him all the land south of a line between Narragansett Bay and Cohasset. Under this patent, Bradford could have claimed ownership of the entire colony, but he shared control with the other settlers. He turned the patent over to all the freemen (voters) of the colony in 1640. A few years later, surveyors marked off an area corresponding to the present counties of Bristol, Barnstable, and Plymouth as the colony of Plymouth.

 

 

Expansion of the colony. In November 1621, the ship Fortune arrived with 35 new colonists. Other ships brought additional settlers, but the population grew to only 300 settlers in 10 years. Some of the colonists decided to move from Plymouth to better lands. Some went north and established the towns of Duxbury, Marshfield, and Scituate. Others moved west to Rehoboth, or farther east on Cape Cod to settle Sandwich, Barnstable, Yarmouth, and Eastham.

 

World Book Explains: What was life like for women in Plymouth Colony? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, explains the life and hardships of colonial women who lived at the Plimoth Colony. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

 

Government. The men who signed the Mayflower Compact were the freemen of the colony. They, along with any newly chosen freemen, met once a year to discuss the problems of the colony. This body, called the General Court, elected the governor and his assistants, made laws, and levied taxes. In outlying towns, the freemen held town meetings to elect their own officers and settle town matters. Beginning in 1639, these towns sent representatives to the General Court at Plymouth.

 

World Book Explains: Did the Pilgrims eat lobster? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, discusses the dietary habits of the Pilgrims. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

Economic life. The Pilgrims had organized a joint-stock company with some London merchants to finance their voyage. They agreed to put the results of their labor into a common fund, which would provide the necessities of life for the settlers. At the end of seven years, all the profits and property were to be divided among the financiers and the settlers. This experiment did not work out, however, and in 1623 the colony allowed settlers to farm individual plots. The London merchants in 1627 agreed to sell their interest in the company to the Pilgrims, who finished paying off the debt in 1648.

 

The Pilgrims at first expected to make a profit from fishing, but they were not successful. They then turned to fur trading for profit. When other Puritans settled Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1628, the Pilgrims developed a prosperous trade in corn and cattle with them.

 

World Book Explains: Was there romance among the Pilgrims? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, talks about love among the Pilgrims. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

The Wampanoag Indians

Wampanoag, «WAHM puh NOH ag», Indians are a tribe that live in southeastern Massachusetts. In 1621, the Wampanoag and English settlers known as Pilgrims joined in the first Thanksgiving festival to give thanks for a good harvest and for peace. The Pilgrims had settled within the Wampanoag’s traditional homeland, which extended from what is now eastern Rhode Island to Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

 

World Book Explains: What Native American tribes did the Pilgrims encounter? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, talks about the Native American tribes the Pilgrims encountered. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

The Wampanoag traditionally lived by farming, hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods. They were loosely organized into groups headed by leaders called sachems. However, no single sachem held authority over all the Wampanoag. The Wampanoag originally spoke an Algonquian language that is now extinct.

 

World Book Explains: What types of homes did Native Americans live in during Colonial times? Philip Wynne, Native Mashpee Wampanoag at Plimoth Plantation, describes the types of homes Native Americans lived in during Colonial times. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

Contact with Europeans beginning in the early 1600’s created terrible hardships for the Wampanoag. Smallpox, measles, and other European diseases killed many Indians. Other Indians were kidnapped and sold into slavery.

 

In 1620, English Pilgrims established Plymouth Colony along Cape Cod Bay. Massasoit, a Wampanoag sachem, made a treaty with the Pilgrims in 1621. He believed the Pilgrims would protect his people from the neighboring Narragansett Indians, traditional enemies of the Wampanoag. Massasoit agreed that his people would not harm the Pilgrims as long as he lived. In return, the Pilgrims promised to protect the Indians and respect their rights. But the friendly relations did not last.

 

World Book Explains: Did the Pilgrims get along with Native Americans (Native American perspective)? Philip Wynne, Native Mashpee Wampanoag at Plimoth Plantation, explains the relationship between the Pilgrims and Native Americans from a Native American perspective. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

When Massasoit died, his elder son, Wamsutta—whom the Europeans called Alexander—succeeded him as sachem. Massasoit's younger son, Metacom, later succeeded Wamsutta. Europeans referred to Metacom as King Philip, believing he ruled over all the Wampanoag. Metacom grew concerned that as their demand for land increased, the settlers would eventually destroy his people. He began preparations to drive out all the Europeans in New England. The violent conflict, known as King Philip's War, began in 1675. After several battles, the settlers defeated Metacom's forces at Mount Hope—near present-day Bristol, Rhode Island—on Aug. 12, 1676. The settlers hunted down Metacom and killed him in a nearby swamp. They displayed his head on a stake in Plymouth for years as a warning to discourage further attacks by Indians.

 

Following the war, the Wampanoag lost most of their traditional lands to European settlers. Many Wampanoag adopted Christianity and other customs of the settlers. However, they never lost their sense of identity.

 

Today, the Wampanoag live mainly in southeastern Massachusetts, where they are organized into five bands: (1) Assonet, (2) Gay Head or Aquinnah, (3) Herring Pond, (4) Mashpee, and (5) Namasket. In the 1970’s, the Wampanoag formed a tribal council to represent the interests of the tribe. The council helped the Gay Head band of the Wampanoag obtain federal recognition in 1987. The Mashpee band became federally recognized in 2007.

 

World Book Explains: Did Native Americans marry in Colonial times? Philip Wynne, Native Mashpee Wampanoag at Plimoth Plantation, discusses Native American marriages in Colonial times. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

 

 

Later years in Plymouth and beyond

Massachusetts Bay Colony's superior harbor at Boston helped draw trade and settlers from Plymouth Colony. Boundary and trade disputes increased among the colonies that had formed in the area. The Pilgrims also faced the danger of attack by nearby Indians and Dutch and French colonists. In 1643, Plymouth Colony joined the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies in forming the New England Confederation. This alliance worked to settle disputes and provide for the common defense.

 

World Book Explains: Did the Pilgrims get along with Native Americans? Kathleen Curtin, Historian at Plimoth Plantation, explains the relationship between the Pilgrims and Native Americans from a Native American perspective. This video was filmed at Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, MA.

 

Peace between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag Indians ended in 1675. Grievances had been brewing for years over issues of land and the administration of justice. But a war was finally sparked by the executions, in Plymouth, of two Indians convicted of killing John Sassamon, a Christian Indian. One by one, each of the New England colonies joined in the fighting. On the Indian side, the fighting was led by Massasoit’s son, Metacom. Metacom was also known as King Philip, and the war became known as King Philip’s War. Relative to population, the war became one of the bloodiest in American history.

 

Metacom was killed in 1676, and the war in southern New England ended. Fighting in northern New England continued until 1678. Ultimately, the war destroyed half of the English settlements in New England. In 1686, King James II of England tried to reassert control over the colonies by combining Plymouth and the rest of New England, New York, and New Jersey into the Dominion of New England. But the dominion proved unpopular and was disbanded in 1689. In 1691, Plymouth became part of Massachusetts Bay Colony.

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

Later thanksgiving days in the United States and Canada

The custom of thanksgiving days spread from Plymouth to other New England colonies. During the American Revolution (1775-1783), the Americans observed eight special days of thanks for victories and for being saved from dangers. In 1789, President George Washington issued a general proclamation naming November 26 a national day of thanksgiving.

 

For many years, the country had no regular national Thanksgiving Day. But some states had a yearly thanksgiving holiday. By 1830, New York had an official state Thanksgiving Day, and other Northern states soon followed its example. In 1855, Virginia became the nation’s first Southern state to adopt the custom.

 

Sarah Hale, the editor of Godey’s Lady’s Book, worked many years to promote the idea of a national Thanksgiving Day. Then President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the last Thursday in November 1863, as “a day of thanksgiving and praise to our beneficent Father.” Each year afterward, the president formally proclaimed that Thanksgiving Day should be celebrated on the last Thursday of November. But in 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt set it one week earlier to help business by lengthening the shopping period before Christmas. Congress ruled that after 1941 the fourth Thursday of November would be observed as Thanksgiving Day and would be a legal federal holiday.

 

Thanksgiving Day in Canada is celebrated in much the same way as in the United States. The first Canadian thanksgiving was celebrated in Newfoundland in 1578. The English captain Martin Frobisher held a ceremony to give thanks for surviving the long sea journey from England. Thanksgiving Day in Canada was formerly celebrated on the last Monday in October. But in 1957, the Canadian government proclaimed the second Monday in October to be the holiday.

 

This article is from The World Book Encyclopedia.

 

 

 

<

<Native North American

Celebrations and Rituals    Celebrations and Rituals 
    <Native North Americans     
   Celebratiosn and Rituals 1      <Celebratiosn and Rituals 2 

 

 

 


Buy World Book Online Subscription

World Book 2013 Encyclopedia

Share this story:


connect-youTube