# Curriculum Guide for Grade 7

## Mathematics

Note about mathematics curriculum:

Mathematics curriculum at any grade level or for any topic identifies what students should know and be able to do at a particular grade level or course. However, intricately connected to and supporting all mathematics content and curriculum are mathematical processes that are common to all strands and specific expectations. Students at all levels need experiences with and growing proficiency in these practices. Educators and parents keep these in mind and integrate them constantly into mathematics instruction. The processes describe ways that students need to engage with mathematical subject matter increasingly as they progress through the grades.

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Source: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics process standards, National Research Council’s report on helping children learn mathematics, Adding It Up.

## Statistics and Probability

• Understand the concept and uses of statistics
• Find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread for a data set
• Understand and use random sampling to draw inferences about a population
• Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical distributions
• Understand the concept of probability of a chance event
• Express the likelihood of an event occurring with a number between 0 and 1
• Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data
• Draw probability models and use them to find probabilities
• Predict approximate relative frequencies of events
• Find probabilities of compound events using diagrams, tables, lists, or simulation
• Solve real world and mathematical problems involving statistics and probability

## Ratios and Proportional Relationships

• Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities
• Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship
• Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in proportional relationships
• Use equations to represent proportional relationships
• Solve multistep ratio and percent problems
• Analyze proportional relationships to solve real world and mathematical problems

## The Number System

• Understand and explain addition and subtraction of rational numbers
• Understand and explain multiplication and division of rational numbers
• Apply properties of operations with rational numbers
• Convert rational numbers to decimals
• Know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in zero or repeats
• Compute fluently with rational numbers
• Solve real world problems involving operations with rational numbers

## Geometry

• Construct triangles from three measures of angles or sides
• Identify and describe similarity relationships of polygons
• Interpret and create scale drawings of geometric figures
• Solve real world and mathematical problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures
• Solve real world and mathematical problems that involve vertical, adjacent, complementary, and supplementary angles
• Solve real world and mathematical problems involving angle measure
• Understand and apply formulas for area and circumference of a circle
• Understand and apply formulas for area, volume, and surface area
• Solve real world and mathematical problems involving area, volume, and surface area of quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, right prisms, and cylinders
• Describe two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three-dimensional figures

## Algebra and Functions

• Apply properties of operations to generate equivalent linear expressions
• Add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients
• Use variables to represent unknown quantities
• Rewrite expressions in different forms in the context of a problem
• Construct equations to solve real world and mathematical problems
• Construct inequalities to solve real world and mathematical problems
• Graph and interpret the solutions sets of inequalities
• Identify the sequence of operations used in solving an equation
• Define slope as vertical change for each unit of horizontal change
• Identify the slope of a line from its graph

## Speaking and Listening

• Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
• Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
• Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
• Listen and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
• Analyze ideas and details presented in many media and formats
• Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
• Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
• Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
• Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
• Show command of formal English language when speaking for a variety of tasks

## Reading Literature and Informational Text and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

• Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
• Find and explain one or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development
• Analyze how a theme or central idea develops throughout the text
• Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
• Analyze how elements of a story interact
• Analyze interactions between/among individuals, events, and ideas in a text
• Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
• Describe how a text presents information
• Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
• Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
• Analyze the effect of specific word choices on a text’s meaning and tone
• Analyze how a particular part of a text fits into the overall structure
• Analyze how the form or structure of a text contributes to its meaning
• Analyze how an author develops and contrasts points of view of different characters
• Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic
• Compare and contrast a text to its audio, video, or multimedia version
• Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
• Trace and evaluate the argument and supporting reasons in a text
• Analyze whether an author supports a claim with sound reasoning and sufficient evidence
• Analyze and compare two or more authors’ presentations of the same information
• Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal and a historical account of the same period
• By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency

## Writing

• Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
• Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
• Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
• Produce effective writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
• Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
• Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
• Use tools, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
• Cite sources for information used in writing
• Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
• Conduct short research tasks on a topic through investigation
• Gather information from various sources to answer a question
• Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
• Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
• Include evidence from literary or informational texts
• Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

## Vocabulary

• Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
• Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
• Use relationships between words to better understand each word
• Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, find its pronunciation or its part of speech
• Interpret and use figurative language in context
• Distinguish literal and nonliteral meanings of words in context
• Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
• Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
• Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary

## English Language Skills

• Explain the function of phrases and clauses and their use in specific sentences
• Use phrases and clauses correctly in a sentence
• Recognize and correct dangling and misplaced modifiers
• Identify and use simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences
• Use conventions of English correctly when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
• Spell grade-level words correctly
• Choose precise and concise words when writing or speaking
• Vary sentence patterns for meaning, interest, and style when writing; avoid passive construction
• Maintain consistency in style and tone when writing
• Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

## Science -  Integrated Science

Note about science curriculum:

The Next Generation Science and Engineering Standards (developed in 2013 in a joint collaboration among the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, and Achieve) describe scientific practices that scientists use as they investigate the natural world and engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. In addition, they present seven crosscutting concepts that apply across all the topics and fields of science. The teaching of science content topics and the corresponding standards at all grade levels K-12 are intricately interwoven with these practices and crosscutting concepts. Students need consistent experience and connection with these two dimensions of science education (practices and cross-cutting concepts) as they work with the third dimension (core science content topics).

Science and Engineering Practices

1. Asking questions (science) and defining problems (engineering)
2. Developing and using models
3. Designing and carrying out investigations
4. Organizing and interpreting data
5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
6. Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering)
7. Engaging in argument from evidence
8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Crosscutting Concepts

1. Patterns
2. Cause and effect
3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
4. Systems and system models
5. Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
6. Structure and function
7. Stability and change

## Physical Science

• Structure of atoms and molecules
• Behavior of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and gases
• Elements and compounds
• Periodic Table
• Physical and chemical changes in matter
• Chemical reactions; new substances from chemical reactions
• Energy released or stored from chemical reactions
• Thermal energy
• Sound and light
• Wave behavior
• Changes in state of matter with variations in temperature or pressure
• Thermal energy and the transfer of thermal energy

## Life Science

• Plant processes (photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration) and their byproducts
• Chemical reactions in organisms to use food
• Biodiversity
• Interdependent relationships among organisms in ecosystems
• Energy transfer in ecosystems
• Cycle of matter in ecosystems
• Disruptions and changes in ecosystems over time
• Cell structure and function
• Human body tissues, organs, and systems
• Health and nutrition
• Homeostasis in the human body

## Earth and Space Science

• Features and interrelationships of Earth’s hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere
• Fossils and Earth’s history
• Interactions that shape Earth’s history and future
• History and elements of plate tectonics
• Earth composition and energy flow
• Earth systems interactions
• Rocks and minerals
• Weathering and erosion from wind, water, and ice
• Natural resources
• Natural hazards
• Water movements and changes in land surface and under ground
• Renewable and nonrenewable resources
• Uneven distribution of Earth’s resources
• History of natural hazards
• Geological forces that forecast natural hazards

## Social Studies -  World History, Medieval, and Early Modern Times

Notes about social science curriculum:

1. These ten themes of social studies serve as a background framework for the teaching of the social sciences at all grade levels. They weave through all content and are interrelated with one another. Students need exposure to and development of these themes throughout the grades.

Source: National Council for the Social Studies

Ten Themes of Social Studies

1. Culture
2. Time, continuity, and change
3. People, places, and environments
4. Individual development and identity
5. Individuals, groups, and institutions
6. Power, authority, and governance
7. Production, distribution, and consumption
8. Science, technology, and society
9. Global connections
10. Civic ideals and practices

2. In addition, there are social studies practices and habits and literacy skills that should be fostered and integrated with all social studies content. Students at all levels need grade-level appropriate experiences that develop and polish these practices.

1. Gathering, interpreting, and using evidence from various sources
2. Applying critical thinking skills to organize, use, and evaluate information
3. Problem solving and decision making processes
4. Chronological reasoning and understanding of causation
5. Comparing and understanding events and relationships in context
6. Comparing different ways of looking at an event or problem
7. Understanding how people might be affected by events, changes, settings, or problems
8. Communicating knowledge, research conclusions, and ideas in written, oral, and visual forms
9. Geographical reasoning and use of geographical tools
10. Describing and explaining economics and economic systems
1.1. Civic understanding and participation

## World History, Medieval, and Early Modern Times

• Disintegration of the Roman Empire
• Byzantine Empire
• Islamic civilizations and trade
• African states in sub-Saharan Africa
• Medieval Chinese and Japanese civilizations
• Feudal system
• Growth and spread of Christianity
• Growth of civilizations in sub-Saharan Africa
• Causes, course, and effects of religious crusades
• Spread of bubonic plague
• Ottoman Empire
• European voyages to and conquests in the Americas
• Rise of the Atlantic slave trade
• Origins, features, and spread of the Renaissance
• Growth of new ways of spreading information
• Reformation and Counterreformation
• Age of Discovery
• Ideas of the Enlightenment
• French Revolution
• Other Revolutions in Europe and the Americas (1775-1848)
• Rise of Imperialism
• Industrial Revolution
• Scientific Revolution
• Rise of democratic thought and institutions
• Physical geography of regions and countries during the medieval period
• Geographic influences on major events in this span of history

## Health and Safety

• Health choices and long-term consequences of choices
• Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health (including healthy eating, personal hygiene, exercise, stress-management, adequate sleep, social and emotional health, disease prevention, and avoidance of accidents and dangers)
• Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health
• Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health
• Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
• Causes and effects of poor body image
• Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment
• Changes in anatomy during puberty
• Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health
• Possible physical, social, and emotional impacts of decisions regarding sexual behavior
• Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active
• Characteristics of healthy relationships and dating behaviors
• Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety
• Importance of regular medical assessment
• Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
• Ways the body defends itself against germs
• Communicable, noncommunicable, and hereditary diseases
• Evaluation of health products
• Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
• Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response
• Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other substances
• Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, and drugs and unsafe situations
• Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs
• Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries
• Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and illegal drugs
• Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
• Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques
• Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control
• Understand appropriate ways to express emotions
• Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
• Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
• Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
• Getting personal support from family
• How and where to get help in making health decisions

## Arts

Note about middle school arts curriculum: Middle-level curriculum often includes and offers experiences and study in a variety of areas in the arts. Some examples are:

•  Animation
•  Architecture
•  Casting
•  Ceramics
•  Choral music
•  Computer graphics and applications
•  Construction
•  Dance or other creative movement
•  Digital arts
•  Drama (including mime, storytelling, and technical aspects of theater)
•  Drawing
•  Film
•  Graphic design
•  Improvisational music
•  Instrumental music
•  Metal Sculpture
•  Mosaics
•  Sculpture
•  Textiles and fiber art

In the study and practice of any of the performance or visual arts, students encounter such topics as:

•  Skills of watching, listening, and responding to works of art
•  Background and elements of particular art form
•  Understanding of the processes and techniques of particular forms
•  Principles of design
•  Vocabulary of particular art forms
•  Interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of works of art
•  Reflecting on own experiences and creations or performances
•  Art history
•  Well-known artists and works of visual or performing art form
•  Cultural contexts and expressions of art
•  Style, materials, and techniques used in a work of art
•  Generating questions about a work of art
•  Considering messages and purposes of a particular work of art
•  Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art
•  Contributions of artists to society
•  Careers in art
•  Discipline and mindset for improving and developing skills in art
•  Fostering of creativity and self-expression
•  Development of artistic awareness, imagination, perception, skill
•  Experimenting with a variety of media, forms, and techniques
•  Solving design problems
•  Use of digital media and tools for producing, viewing, or responding to art
•  Polishing and furthering personal skills in a chosen area of art
•  Participation in collaborative discussions about works of art
•  Participation in collaborative creation of works of art
•  Proper safety procedures for activities in the specific arts

## Technology

General goal for middle-level students: Use technology within all content areas to collaborate, communicate, generate innovative ideas, create original works, and investigate and solve problems.

•  Demonstrating proficient keyboarding skills
•  Use of a variety of common applications and productivity tools
•  Creation of products combining text, images, sound, music, and video
•  Use of spreadsheet and concept-mapping software
•  Use of interactive tools to design polls or surveys to gather data
•  Making contributions to blogs, wikis, and other collaborative forums
•  Gathering weather information and predictions
•  Use of online databases or simulation software to interpret and predict trends
•  Use of digital collaboration tools
•  Increasing knowledge about many cultures through digital content
•  Use of online interactive tools to communicate with learners from other cultures
•  Communicating with multiple audiences through a variety of formats and media
•  Increasing understanding of a local or global issue
•  Choosing appropriate digital resources to plan a project or solve a problem
•  Choosing appropriate search engines or directories
•  Selecting and using appropriate online applications for various purposes
•  Selecting appropriate, relevant sources for a purpose or audience
•  Analysis and synthesis of information to make decisions or develop solutions
•  Assessing the credibility and validity of online sources
•  Following fair use rules
•  Use of bibliography tools to cite sources from digital sources
•  Reporting and sharing of results or solutions
•  Exploring ways to receive feedback from multiple, appropriate audiences
•  Recognition and avoidance of potential online dangers
•  Safe and legal use of online sites and information
•  Understanding of privacy issues
•  Understanding how data are kept and available publicly
•  Understanding safety issues related to sharing personal information online
•  Practicing ethical and respectful behavior
•  Careful, responsible use and maintenance of digital equipment
•  Demonstrating openness to learning new technologies and procedures

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## Typical Course of Study

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