# Curriculum Guide for Grade 9

## Mathematics - Algebra I

1) Many students begin high school level math in the middle grades, completing Algebra I and even Geometry before high school. See mathematics category in grades 10-12 for typical course of study information for higher-level math courses.

2) Mathematics curriculum at any grade level or for any topic identifies what students should know and be able to do at a particular grade level or course. However, intricately connected to and supporting all mathematics content and curriculum are mathematical processes that are common to all strands and specific expectations. Students at all levels need experiences with and growing proficiency in these practices. Educators and parents keep these in mind and integrate them constantly into mathematics instruction. These processes describe ways that students need to engage with mathematical subject matter increasingly as they progress through the grades.

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Source: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics process standards, National Research Council’s report on helping children learn mathematics, Adding It Up.

• Rational and irrational numbers
• Quantitative reasoning
• Real numbers and the real number line
• Operations with real numbers
• The distributive property
• Exponents and powers, including rational, zero, and negative exponents
• Scientific notations
• Parts and structure of expressions
• Interpreting and simplifying expressions, including radical expressions
• Rewriting expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems
• Rewriting rational expressions
• Arithmetic operations on polynomials
• Polynomial identities
• Solving equations as a process of reasoning
• Steps in solving equations
• Equations and inequalities with one variable
• Using equations to solve problems
• Interpreting and modeling solutions
• Rearranging formulas
• Equations with two variables
• Linear equations in various forms
• Systems of equations
• Explaining the coordinate graph
• Graphing coordinates and scatter plots
• Interpreting linear graphs
• Graphing linear equations
• Graphing solutions to linear inequalities
• Predicting with linear models
• Graphing systems of equations
• Slope of a line
• Using graphs to solve problems
• Pythagorean Theorem and its converse
• Reading, writing, and explaining functions
• Graphing functions
• Inverse functions

## Science -  Biology (or Life Science)

1. In the high school grades, there is significant variation in science courses offered or required in the sequence of science courses. In addition to courses in biology or life science, earth science, chemistry, and physics that may be the standard courses, students may be offered such options as basic physical science, environmental science, ecology, principles of technology, urban ecology, botany, geology, astronomy, basic physical science, anatomy and physiology, and biochemistry.

2. The Next Generation Science and Engineering Standards (developed in 2013 in a joint collaboration among the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, and Achieve) describe scientific practices that scientists use as they investigate the natural world and engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. In addition, they present seven crosscutting concepts that apply across all the topics and fields of science. The teaching of science topics and the corresponding standards at all grade levels K-12 are intricately interwoven with these practices and crosscutting concepts. Students need consistent experience and connection with these two dimensions of science education (practices and cross-cutting concepts) as they work with the third dimension (core science content topics).

Science and Engineering Practices

1. Asking questions (science) and defining problems (engineering)
2. Developing and using models
3. Designing and carrying out investigations
4. Organizing and interpreting data
5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
6. Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering)
7. Engaging in argument from evidence
8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

Crosscutting Concepts

1. Patterns
2. Cause and effect
3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
4. Systems and system models
5. Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
6. Structure and function
7. Stability and change

• Origins of life
• Growth and development of organisms
• Ecological relationships
• Cycles of matter and energy flow in organisms and systems
• Plant structures and functions
• Plant processes (photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration)
• Plant behaviors
• Animal structures and functions
• Animal behaviors, including social and group behavior
• Cell structure and function
• One-cell and multicellular organisms
• Cell physiology
• Cell chemistry
• Diffusion and osmosis
• Mitosis
• Interdependent relationships in ecosystems
• Ecosystem dynamics, functioning, and resilience
• Cycles of matter and energy transfer in organisms in ecosystems
• Solar energy in ecosystems
• Human interactions with the environment
• Biodiversity and humans
• Environmental problems and solutions
• Human body structure, function, and systems
• Homeostasis and feedback systems
• Immune responses
• Human reproduction and development
• Genetics
• Biotechnology and bioethics

## Reading Literature and Informational Text and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

• Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
• Cite evidence from text to support analysis of primary and secondary sources
• Identify the theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development
• Identify in detail a series of events described and the relationships among them
• Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
• Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
• Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
• Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several sources
• Analyze how characters develop and how this advances the theme or plot
• Analyze how a text unfolds a series of events and the connections among them
• Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
• Analyze how the author’s structural choices, order of events, and use of time create specific effects, such as tension or surprise
• Analyze a particular point of view or experience reflected in a work of world literature
• Analyze how an author transforms source material from an earlier work by a previous author
• Determine author’s purpose or point of view and how rhetoric is used to advance that purpose or point of view
• Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
• Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to contribute to the meaning or tone of a text
• Compare the point of view or claims of two or more authors on similar topics
• Identify and evaluate the argument, reasoning, and evidence in a text
• Analyze and compare various accounts of a subject told in different media
• Analyze significant U.S. (or home country) historical and literary documents
• By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency

## Speaking and Listening

• Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
• Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
• Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
• Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
• Integrate into speech preparation diverse sources of information in a variety of formats
• Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of rhetoric and evidence
• Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
• Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
• Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
• Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
• Adapt speech to a variety of tasks, showing command of formal English

## Vocabulary

• Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
• Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
• Use relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning
• Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, or to find its pronunciation or part of speech
• Interpret and use figurative language in context
• Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
• Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations

## English Language Skills

• Show a command of conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
• Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
• Make effective choices of language for meaning and style when writing or speaking
• Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

## Writing

• Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
• Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
• Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
• Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
• Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
• Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
• Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
• Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
• Conduct short and sustained research projects on a topic through investigation
• Draw and cite evidence from a variety of texts to support analysis
• Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
• Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
• Include evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis
• Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

## Social Science - Global Studies

1. These ten themes of social studies serve as a background framework for the teaching of the social sciences at all grade levels. They weave through all content and are interrelated with one another. Students need exposure to and development of these themes throughout the grades.

Source: National Council for the Social Studies

Ten Themes of Social Studies

1. Culture
2. Time, continuity, and change
3. People, places, and environments
4. Individual development and identity
5. Individuals, groups, and institutions
6. Power, authority, and governance
7. Production, distribution, and consumption
8. Science, technology, and society
9. Global connections
10. Civic ideals and practices

2. In addition, there are social studies practices and habits and literacy skills that should be fostered and integrated with all social studies content. Students at all levels need grade-level appropriate experiences that develop and polish these practices.

1. Gathering, interpreting, and using evidence from various sources
2. Applying critical thinking skills to organize, use, and evaluate information
3. Problem solving and decision making processes
4. Chronological reasoning and understanding of causation
5. Comparing and understanding events and relationships in context
6. Comparing different ways of looking at an event or problem
7. Understanding how people might be affected by events, changes, settings, or problems
8. Communicating knowledge, research conclusions, and ideas in written, oral, and visual forms
9. Geographic reasoning and use of geographic tools
10. Describing and explaining economics and economic systems
11. Civic understanding and participation

• Use and creation of various kinds of maps
• Identifying physical and human characteristics of a place
• Major world regions
• Physical and cultural characteristics of United States and Canada
• Physical and cultural characteristics of Latin America
• Physical and cultural characteristics of Europe and Russia
• Physical and cultural characteristics of Southwest Asia
• Physical and cultural characteristics of North Africa
• Physical and cultural characteristics of Sub-Saharan Africa
• Physical and cultural characteristics of East Asia and Southeast Asia
• Physical and cultural characteristics of Australia and Oceania
• Distributions of human populations in each world region
• Patterns of migration and settlement in each world region
• How physical geography affects human activity in each world region
• Adaptations of people to their environments in each world region
• Independence and nationalist movements in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia
• 20th century nationalist movements in Southwest Asia and North Africa
• Patterns of industrialization and trade in the Western hemisphere

• Revolutions, independence movements, and social changes during the Cold War
• The spread of capitalism since the end of the Cold War
• Role of Europe in today’s economy
• Influence of oil and resource distributions on economies of regions
• Changes in the economy of contemporary China
• Persistent economic and social disparities in world regions
• Persistent cultural conflicts in world regions
• Varieties of religious beliefs in the contemporary world
• Human rights issues around the world
• Other key global issues
• Influence of social media, TV, and the Internet on social and political movements
• Features of increasing globalization
• Revival and maintenance of traditional cultures in the face of globalization
• Purpose, roles, and work of some key international organizations
• Examples of global interdependence and cooperation

## Arts

Note about high school arts curriculum: High school curriculum generally requires some sort of study and credit in the arts. Most schools offer experiences and study in a variety of areas in the arts. Some examples are:

• Animation
• Architecture
• Casting
• Ceramics
• Choral music
• Computer graphics and applications
• Construction
• Dance or other creative movement
• Digital arts
• Drama (including mime, storytelling, and technical aspects of theater)
• Drawing
• Film
• Graphic design
• Improvisational music
• Instrumental music
• Jewelry-making
• Metal Sculpture
• Mosaics
• Painting
• Photography
• Printmaking
• Sculpture
• Textiles and fiber art

In the study and practice of any of the performance or visual arts, students encounter such topics and sharpen such skills as:

• Watching, listening, and responding to works of art
• Background and elements of particular art form
• Understanding of the processes and techniques of particular forms
• Principles of design
• Vocabulary of particular art forms
• Interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of works of art
• Reflecting on own experiences and creations or performances
• Art history
• Well-known artists and works of visual or performing art forms
• Cultural contexts and expressions of art
• Style, materials, and techniques used in a work of art
• Generating questions about a work of art
• Considering messages and purposes of a particular work of art
• Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art
• Reflecting on the contributions of artists to society
• Careers in art
• Discipline and mindset for improving and developing skills in art
• Fostering of creativity and self-expression
• Development of artistic awareness, imagination, perception, skill
• Experimenting with a variety of media, forms, and techniques
• Solving design problems
• Use of digital media and tools for producing, viewing, or responding to art
• Polishing and furthering personal skills in a chosen area of art
• Participation in collaborative discussions about works of art
• Participation in collaborative creation of works of art
• Proper safety procedures for activities in the specific arts

## Technology

General goal for high school students: Use technology within all content areas to collaborate, communicate, generate innovative ideas, create original works, and investigate and solve problems.

• Demonstrating proficient keyboarding skills
• Understanding of operating system tools, applications, and storage devices
• Use of a variety of common applications and productivity tools
• Creating products combining text, images, sound, music, and video
• Creating and publishing stories, games, animations, problems, and solutions
• Creating Web pages
• Use of spreadsheet and concept-mapping software
• Use of interactive tools to design polls or surveys to gather data
• Making contributions to blogs, wikis, and other digital collaborative forums
• Use of online databases or simulation software to interpret and predict trends
• Increasing knowledge about many cultures through digital content
• Communicating with multiple audiences through a variety of formats and media
• Increasing understanding of a local or global issue
• Researching and using information fluently
• Choosing appropriate search engines, directories, and online applications
• Selecting appropriate, relevant sources for a purpose or audience
• Analysis and synthesis of information to make decisions or develop solutions
• Assessing the credibility and validity of online sources
• Use of bibliography tools to cite sources from digital sources
• Reporting and sharing results or solutions
• Exploring ways to receive feedback from multiple, appropriate audiences
• Demonstrate understanding and avoidance of potential online dangers
• Understanding health hazards of frequent technology use
• Demonstrating safe and legal use of online sites and information
• Use of passwords, virus prevention, and other protective procedures
• Understanding risks of social networking sites; safe sharing of personal information online
• Understanding privacy issues and how data are kept and available publicly
• Practicing ethical and respectful behavior online
• Careful, responsible use and maintenance of digital equipment
• Demonstrating openness to learning new technologies and procedures

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