# Curriculum Guide for Kindergarten

## Mathematics

Mathematics curriculum at any grade level or for any topic identifies what students should know and be able to do at a particular grade level or course. However, intricately connected to and supporting all mathematics content and curriculum are mathematical processes that are common to all strands and specific expectations. Students at all levels need experiences with and growing proficiency in these practices. Educators and parents keep these in mind and integrate them constantly into mathematics instruction. These processes describe ways that students need to engage with mathematical subject matter increasingly as they progress through the grades.

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
4. Model with mathematics.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
6. Attend to precision.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Source: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics process standards, National Research Council’s report on helping children learn mathematics, Adding It Up.

## Numbers and Counting

• Count to 100 by ones and by tens
• Count forward from a given number (instead of beginning at 1)
• Write numbers from 0 to 20
• Recognize and name written numerals to 100
• Understand that a number represents a quantity
• Recognize and describe the concept of zero
• Count objects in one-to-one correspondence saying number names in order
• Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity one larger than the last
• Count a number of objects from 0 to 20 and name the set with a written numeral
• Understand that the last counting word tells “how many” in the set
• Count to answer “How many?" about 0-20 items arranged in a line, rectangle, or circle
• Compare numbers and quantities with the words
• Without counting, give number of objects in a set (up to four objects)
• Estimate the number of objects in a small set

## Measurement and Data

• Describe measurable attributes of an object (height, weight, length, etc.)
• Classify objects and count number of objects in a category
• Compare objects in shape and size
• Compare objects by length, weight, or capacity, using such words as longer, shorter, bigger, smaller, heavier, lighter, taller, and shorter
• Put 3-10 objects in size order by some attribute
• Know that units are used to measure (pounds, minutes, feet, quarts, meters, etc.)
• Measure length with such units as toy blocks or similar objects safe for age range
• Estimate simple measurements
• Discuss such units of time as seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, and years

## Numbers and Operations

• Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and additional ones using drawings and objects
•  Show compositions or decompositions with drawings or written equations (16 = 10 + 6)
•  Understand that the numbers 11-19 are composed of ten ones and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 ones

## Geometry and Spatial Relationships

• Describe positions of things in relation to other things (in, on, under, up, down inside, outside, behind, in front, between, and beside)
• Describe positions of objects in relation to other objects
•  Identify, name, and describe a square, circle, oval, triangle, rectangle, and hexagon
•  Find and name shapes in the environment
•  Identify shapes as two-dimensional (flat) or three-dimensional (solid)
•  Create shapes and compose shapes from other shapes
• Analyze and compare the parts and characteristics of two- and three-dimensional shapes in different sizes and positions
• Sort items according to their shapes (regardless of size)
• Build and draw shapes
• Combine simple shapes into larger shapes
• Combine shapes to create a picture or design
• Sort and classify objects by one or more characteristics into two or more groups
• Recognize simple repeating patterns
• Extend and create simple repeating patterns

## Mathematical Operations and Algebra

• Represent addition and subtraction with fingers, objects, claps, drawings, explanations, or number sentences or phrases
• Understand that “adding more” increases the number of objects in a set
• Understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from
• Understand that subtracting (“taking away”) items from a set makes a smaller set
• Use objects, drawings, and written number sentences to solve addition and subtraction problems within 10 (including word problems)
• Decompose numbers 0 to 10 into pairs using objects or drawings and written number sentences (6 = 4 + 2 or 6 = 3 + 3)

## Language Arts

• Look at pictures in books and pretend to read
• Has own books
• Understand that print is something to be read and has meaning
• Understand that spoken words are represented by written words
• Understand that printed words are separated by spaces
• Identify and show an interest in many different kinds of texts
• Takes care of books; identify title, cover, author, and illustrator of book
• Recognize that letters form words and words form sentences
• Follow words from left to right and top to bottom
• Recognize own name and common words in print
• Recognize and name all uppercase and lowercase letters
• Recite the alphabet
• Recognize that letters have sounds
• Pronounce the most common sound for each letter
• Identify beginning, ending, and middle sounds in a word
• Pronounce words, one sound at a time
• Make new words from one-syllable words by changing a sound (cat from rat, mud from mad, lid from lip)
• Match and produce words that rhyme
• Hear and say separate syllables in words
• Orally blend sounds and syllables into words
• Read some common words by sight
• Retell familiar stories, including key sequence and details
• Identify events, characters, and settings in a story
• Identify the main topic and key details in an informational text
• Describe the relationships between pictures and text
• Compare and contrast events or details in two stories or texts
• Tell why an author wrote a text and how he or she accomplished the purpose
• Tell or try to determine the meanings of simple words from texts
• Take part in group reading activities and discussions

## Writing and Representing

• Understand that writing is a way to communicate meaning
• Print own first and last name
• Write many uppercase and lowercase letters
• Write letters to represent words
• Express ideas from a text by drawing, dictating, or writing
• Use pictures, designs, scribbles, and letters to represent events, objects, ideas, information, or stories
• Create drawings, designs, written words, or made-up words to express opinions or preferences, or to give information
• Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a story or event
• Use invented spelling to form words, phrases, or sentences
• Explore digital tools to produce and publish writing
• Participate in group research and writing projects

## Speaking, Listening, and Viewing

• Speak clearly enough to be understood and at an appropriate volume
• Speak in complete and increasingly complex sentences
• Understand and use an increasing number and variety of words
• Learn and follow age-appropriate rules of standard English grammar
• Speak to give a point of view or opinion, and to express thoughts and feelings
• Speak to describe, clarify, negotiate, or persuade
• Describe familiar people, places, things, and events with some detail
• Describe relationships among objects, events, and people
• Tell a story
• Retell a story or recount information gained through listening
• Respond appropriately to questions
• Take part in conversations with adults and peers
• Learn and follow rules for listening, speaking, and discussing
• Show understanding of spoken directions
• Show attentiveness to presentations
• Learn new vocabulary through listening
• Put ideas in sequence after listening to a story, instructions, or an explanation
• Make sense of pictures, symbols, and other visual features
• Draw conclusions based on information from digital and visual media

## Science

The Next Generation Science and Engineering Standards (developed in 2013 in a joint collaboration among the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, and Achieve) describe scientific practices that scientists use as they investigate the natural world and engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. In addition, they present seven crosscutting concepts that apply across all the topics and fields of science. The teaching of science topics and the corresponding standards at all grade levels K-12 are intricately interwoven with these practices and crosscutting concepts. Students need consistent experience and connection with these two dimensions of science education (practices and cross-cutting concepts) as they work with the third dimension (core science content topics).

Science and Engineering Practices

1. Asking questions (science) and defining problems (engineering)
2. Developing and using models
3. Designing and carrying out investigations
4. Organizing and interpreting data
5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
6. Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering)
7. Engaging in argument from evidence
8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communication information

Crosscutting Concepts

1. Patterns
2. Cause and effect
3. Scale, proportion, and quantity
4. Systems and system models
5. Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
6. Structure and function
7. Stability and change

## Approach to Science

• Show curiosity about the world
• Use senses and tools to observe, investigate, ask questions, solve problems, and draw conclusions
• Describe what he or she wants to learn from a science investigation
• Ask “Why?” “How?” and “What if?” questions
• Use measurement and other math processes to gather information
• Collect, describe, record, and communicate information
• Explain, predict, analyze, and generalize about a science event

## Earth and Space Science

• Describe physical properties of soil and rocks
• Describe characteristics of soil, water, and air
• Observe and describe objects in space
• Observe and describe apparent movements of objects in space
• Describe changes in weather and seasons
• Discuss ways the environment provides resources for people
• Discuss some ways to protect the environment
• Describe weather and climate in terms of sunlight, precipitation, and temperature in a region
• Share observations of local weather
• Notice and record weather and climate patters over time
• Discuss ways that animals and plants change their environment
• Draw or describe the relationship between needs of different plants and animals in the places they live (in such a setting as a desert or meadow)
• Describe ways to reduce people’s adverse impact on land, water, air, living things
• Describe ways people use natural resources to get things they need

## Life Science

• Describe the differences between living and nonliving things
• Describe the basic needs of living things
• Describe sources of food for plants and animals
• Describe sources of water and light for plants and animals
• Understand that living things grow and change
• Observe, describe, compare, and discuss living things
• Match plants and animals to their habitats
• Describe how animals resemble their parents
• Identify ways living things change as they grow
• Recognize seasonal changes in plants and animals
• Name external parts of some plants and animals
• Describe simple life cycles (butterfly or frog)
• Show respect for living things

## Physical Science

• Observe, describe, and compare physical properties of objects (size, texture, shape, weight, color, freezing and melting, sinking or floating, etc.)
• Compare and sort objects according to physical attributes
• Identify such sources of energy as light, heat, and electricity
• Identify solids and liquids
• Understand that liquids take the shape of their containers
• Describe effects of common forces (pushing and pulling, kicking, wind, gravity, magnetism, etc.)
• Describe specific interactions between objects when they collide or touch
• Describe effects of smaller or bigger forces
• Observe the effects of sunlight on Earth’s surface
• Design a structure to reduce the effects of sunlight on a specific area

## Social Studies

1. These ten themes of social studies serve as a background framework for the teaching of the social sciences at all grade levels. They weave through all content and are interrelated with one another. Students need exposure to and development of these themes throughout the grades.
Source: National Council for the Social Studies

Ten Themes of Social Studies

1. Culture
2. Time, continuity, and change
3. People, places, and environments
4. Individual development and identity
5. Individuals, groups, and institutions
6. Power, authority, and governance
7. Production, distribution, and consumption
8. Science, technology, and society
9. Global connections
10. Civic ideals and practices

2. In addition, there are social studies practices and habits and literacy skills that should be fostered and integrated with all social studies content. Students at all levels need grade-level appropriate experiences that develop and polish these practices.

1. Gathering, interpreting, and using evidence from various sources
2. Applying critical thinking skills to organize, use, and evaluate information
3. Problem solving and decision making processes
4. Chronological reasoning and understanding of causation
5. Comparing and understanding events and relationships in context
6. Communicating knowledge, research conclusions, and ideas in written, oral, and visual forms
7. Geographical reasoning and use of geographical tools (including maps and timelines)
8. Describing and explaining economics and economic systems
9. Civic participation and understanding

## Self, Family, and Community

• Identify personal family and community
• Recognize similarities and differences in people and families
• Discuss what it means to be a member of a family and a community
• Describe features of communities and neighborhoods
• Identify cultural traditions of one’s own family or community
• Identify personal likes, dislikes, talents, and skills
• Understand and describe self as a learner
• Identify ways people learn from their families and communities
• Show understanding and appreciation of diversity (racial, ethnic, religious, national origins, beliefs, traditions, family structures, etc.)

## Citizenship

• Describe rights and responsibilities of children as members of a family, school, community, nation, and world
• Explain the importance of cooperation in a group
• Understand the need for rules at home or school
• Understand the need for laws in the community
• Discuss routines and rules that help keep people safe and healthy
• Identify own country, state (province or territory), and symbols such as the flag
• Experience opportunities to vote to make simple decisions
• Identify important cultural traditions, holidays, and symbols of one’s own country
• Identify the capital of the country and some national holidays
• Identify the president (head of state/head of government) of the country and some local or state (provincial or territorial) leaders

## History

• Tell the difference between past, present, and future events
• Show a basic awareness of personal and family history
• Describe ways family histories are shared and passed down
• Describe traditions and values of own family and other families
• Identify some important events that happened in the distant or recent past
• Describe how things change over time
• Put events in sequential order

## Geography

• Recognize that maps and globes are representations of the Earth’s surface
• Describe or draw maps of own home, school, community
• Locate home, school, community on maps
• Use directions to describe relative locations of familiar places
• Describe topographical features of own neighborhood or state (province or territory)
• Become familiar with maps of the United States (or home country) and world
• Discuss ways that people are affected by and adapt to their physical environment
• Discuss ways people can take care of their environment

## Economics

• Understand that people need food, clothing, and shelter
• Identify and distinguish between needs and wants
• Discuss ways families make choices to meet their needs and wants
• Identify examples of scarcity and choices made due to scarcity
• Identify examples of goods and services
• Understand that money or trade is used to get goods or services
• Understand that money comes in different forms
• Identify some of the ways families get money
• Recognize jobs in the community and the work people do

## Health and Safety

• Define and give examples of heath choices and their consequences
• Practice good personal hygiene
• Take measures to prevent the spread of disease
• Identify and make healthy food choices
• Participate regularly in active play and other physical activities (contingent on any physical or other limitations)
• Understand reasons to get enough sleep and relaxation
• Learn and follow safety rules during play and daily activities (walking, being near streets, water play, riding in a car, biking, etc.)
• Name objects that may be dangerous
• Recognize and discuss causes and symptoms of common illnesses
• Discuss and use behaviors to prevent poisoning
• Know the basic structures and functions of the human body
• Identify health services in own community
• Distinguish between helpful and harmful situations
• Recognize and follow practices for responding to emergencies
• Know how to get out of house or school in event of fire
• Use telephone in emergency; provide name, address, and telephone number
• Show appropriate behavior during fire, earthquake, and other disaster drills
• Display appropriate skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
• Understand and show ways to interact safely with strangers
• Identify safe behaviors when uncomfortable or unsafe around another person
• Show development of self-confidence and self-esteem
• Demonstrate respect and consideration for all individuals
• Develop resiliency and bonds with peers and adults
• Identify, express, and manages feelings appropriately
• Develop and display effective coping strategies
• Avoid self-destructive behaviors
• Show positive social and practices with peers, in home, and community
• Show understanding of and respect for individual differences
• Identify and discuss bullying behaviors
• Identify and demonstrate alternative behaviors to bullying
• Describe appropriate responses to bullying of self or others
• Describe how to get help in solving conflicts with peers

## Arts

(NB: Contingent on physical or other limitations.)

• Experiment with musical instruments
• Move to different musical beats and rhythms
• Perform and create artistic movements and patterns
• Read, write, and perform simple patterns of sounds and rhythms
• Use voice to speak, chant, sing
• Improvise music with instruments
• Listen to, describe, and respond to a variety of music
• Experience and describe music representing different cultures
• Identify some common musical instruments by sight and sound
• Sing age-appropriate songs with accuracy from memory
• Act out events or stories using language and objects
• Improvise dramatizations of stories or ideas
• Take part in experiences in script writing, making props and sets, and acting
• Observe patterns in nature and works of art
• Experiment with visual art using a variety of materials and techniques
• Create and share original works of visual art in various media and dimensions
• Express observations, ideas, or feelings through music, drama, or visual art
• Identify and discuss some well-known works of dance, drama, music, and visual arts and some artists, actors, writers, musicians, choreographers, or composers
• Describe and respond to creative works
• Learn and use vocabulary of dance, music, drama, and visual arts
• Use several forms of art for self-expression of ideas, personality, or thoughts
• Demonstrate appropriate audience skills while watching live performances

## Technology

• Identify basic parts of technology systems
• Name input and output devices
• Identify and use applications of technology systems
• Use basic computer skills (turn on computer, use keyboard and mouse)
• Know and use skills and procedures for other devices (music players, tablets, smart phones, cameras, etc.)
• Open, label, save, and close files
• Follow directions to operate software programs
• Operate sound recording devices
• Identify ways technology is used in daily living
• Listen to texts presented in electronic forms
• Create songs, drawings, movies, or stories
• Communicate digitally with available technology
• Collaborate digitally with available technology
• Know and follow age-appropriate practices for safe use of technology
• Use accurate terminology related to technology
• Show appropriate care and maintenance for digital equipment
• Use technology devices for a variety of age-appropriate tasks

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