# Curriculum Guide for Preschool

## Approaches to Learning

•  Approach activities with curiosity and imagination
•  Engage in play as a means to explore and learn
•  Ask questions and show eagerness to learn
•  Show willingness to try new activities
•  Keep focus on an activity and avoid distractions
•  Cooperate with peers in learning and play activities
•  Identify and try to solve problems

## Number Sense

• Understand that a number represents a quantity
• Recognize and name some written numerals
• Count objects in one-to-one correspondence
• Count to recognize how many objects are in a set
• Count numbers in order to 20 by ones
• Understand that the last counting word tells “how many”
• Recognize and describe the concept of zero
• Tell what number comes after a number (up to 10)
• Without counting, give number of objects in a set (up to four objects)
• Estimate the number of objects in a small set
• Compare quantities in two sets of objects

## Measurement

• Compare objects in shape and size
• Compare objects by length, weight, or capacity, using such words as longer, shorter, bigger, smaller, heavier, lighter, taller, and shorter
• Put 3-10 objects in order by size
• Know that units are used to measure<3m> (pounds, inches, cups, meters, minutes, feet, etc.)
• Measure length with such units as toy blocks or or similar objects safe for age range
• Estimate simple measurements
• Discuss units of time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, and years)

## Mathematical Operations and Algebra

• Compare number of objects using such words as more, less, the same as, greater than, fewer, or equal
• Understand that “adding more” increases the number of objects in a set
• Understand that putting two sets of objects together makes a bigger set
• Understand that subtracting (“taking away”) items from a set makes a smaller set
• Solve simple addition and subtraction problems with a small number of objects
• Sort and classify objects according to one or more attributes into two or more groups
• Recognize simple repeating patterns
• Extend and create simple repeating patterns

## Geometry and Spatial Relationships

• Identify and name a square, circle, triangle, and rectangle
• Describe parts and characteristics of shapes
• Sort items according to their shapes (regardless of size)
• Find shapes in the environment
• Combine and separate different shapes to create a picture or design
• Describe positions of objects or people (in, on, under, up, down, inside, outside, behind, in front, between, beside, etc.)

## History

• Tell the difference between past, present, future events
• Show a basic awareness of personal and family history
• Identify events that happened in the past
• Describe common events and routines using such words as today, tomorrow, yesterday, last week, or next week
• Describe how things change over time
• Put events in sequential order

## Geography

• Describe or draw maps of own home, school, community
• Name street, neighborhood, city where he or she lives
• Locate objects and places in familiar environments
• Describe topographical features in his or her neighborhood or state (or province, territory)
• Discuss ways people can take care of their environment

## Self, Family, and Community

• Identify personal family and community
• Understand that each person belongs to a family
• Recognize similarities and differences in people and families
• Describe own community
• Identify cultural traditions of own family and community
• Recognize jobs in the community and the work people do

## Economics

• Understand that people need food, clothing, and shelter
• Distinguish between wants and needs
• Understand the idea of limited resources and choices about resources
• Understand that money or trade is used to get goods or services
• Understand that money comes in different forms
• Participate in role-play involving creating and selling of goods and services
• Identify some of the ways families get money
• Understand the need for rules at home or school
• Understand the need for laws in the community

## Citizenship

• Describe classroom rules and their purposes; follow classroom rules
• Identify own country, state (or province, territory), and symbols (flag, state seal, Statue of Liberty, etc.)
• Suggest simple solutions to conflict
• Discuss some actions and responsibilities of good citizens
• Work and play cooperatively with other children
• Experience opportunities to vote to make simple decisions

## Science Processes and Skills

• Show curiosity about the world
• Use senses and tools to observe, investigate, ask questions, solve problems, and draw conclusions
• Describe what he or she wants to learn from a science investigation
• Ask “Why?” “How?” and “What if?” questions
• Collect, describe, and record (write or draw) information
• Explain, predict, and generalize about an event or experience

## Physical Science

• Observe, describe, and compare physical properties of objects (size, texture, shape, weight, color, freezing and melting, or sinking or floating)
• Compare and sort objects according to physical attributes
• Identify such sources of energy as light, heat, and electricity
• Identify and compare solids and liquids
• Understand that liquids take the shape of their containers
• Describe effects of common forces (pushing and pulling, kicking, wind, gravity, or magnetism)

## Earth and Space Science

• Describe physical properties of soil and rocks
• Describe characteristics of soil, water, and air
• Observe and describe objects in space
• Observe and describe movements of objects in space
• Describe changes in weather and seasons
• Discuss ways the environment provides resources for people
• Discuss some ways to protect the environment

## Life Science

• Describe the differences between living and nonliving things
• Describe basic needs of living things
• Understand that living things grow and change
• Observe, describe, compare, and discuss living things
• Match plants and animals to their habitats
• Describe how animals resemble their parents
• Identify ways living things change as they grow
• Recognize seasonal changes in plants and animals
• Name external parts of plants and animals
• Describe simple life cycles (butterfly or frog)
• Show respect for living things

## Social-Emotional Development

• Manage comfortably when apart from parents or primary care givers for 2-3 hours
• Meet visitors without excessive shyness
• Know full name, gender, age, and birthday
• Know parents’ names, home address, and home phone number
• Is not afraid to go to school
• Describe own physical characteristics and abilities positively
• Recognize self as a unique individual
• Perform many routines and tasks independently
• Express own feelings, needs, and opinions appropriately
• Maintain self control
• Recognize and describe own and others’ emotions and behavior
• Play with other children
• Develop friendships with peers
• Show empathy to peers
• Share, take turns, and help others
• Take part in pretend play
• Make age-appropriate decisions and choices
• Follow simple rules, routines, and directions
• Move from one task to another without delay or distress
• Cooperate with peers and family members
• Try to resolve peer conflict
• Take care of own belongings
• Talk comfortably with others
• Relate comfortably to teachers or primary caregivers
• Minimize disruptive or aggressive behavior
• Handle change and adapt to new situations appropriately
• Ask for help when needed
• Help family with chores

## Speaking, Listening, and Viewing

• Speak clearly and audibly in complete sentences
• Speak to give a point of view or opinion, or to persuade
• Speak to describe, clarify, or negotiate
• Take part in conversations with adults and peers
• Describe relationships between objects, events, and people
• Speak clearly enough to be understood
• Tell a story
• Respond appropriately to questions
• Use language to describe events and tell stories
• Understand and use an increasing number and variety of words
• Learn and use age-appropriate rules of standard English grammar
• Use increasingly complex sentences
• Learn and follow rules for listening, speaking, and discussing
• Show understanding of spoken directions
• Learn new vocabulary through listening
• Retell a story or recount information gained through listening
• Sequence events after listening
• Show attentiveness to presentations
• Make sense of pictures, symbols, and other visual features
• Draw conclusions based on information from visual media
• ## Writing and Representing

• Express ideas from a text by drawing, dictating, or writing
• Create drawings, signs, or designs to represent an idea or word
• Understand that writing is a way to communicate meaning
• Write letters or letter-like shapes to represent words
• Use pictures, designs, scribbles, and letters to represent events, objects, ideas, or stories
• Print own first name
• Write some uppercase and lowercase letters
• Use invented spelling to form words, phrases, or sentences

• Look at pictures in books and pretend to read
• Has own books
• Show an interest in many different kinds of texts
• Understand that print is something to be read and has meaning
• Connect written to spoken words
• Identify different kinds of texts
• Retell familiar stories
• Tell the meanings of simple words
• Discuss books and other texts
• Take care of books
• Recognize own name and common words in print
• Recognize and name most of the letters
• Recite the alphabet
• Match some uppercase with their corresponding lowercase letters
• Recognize that letters have sounds
• Pronounce words, one sound at a time
• Identify beginning, ending, and middle sounds in a word
• Match or produce words that rhyme
• Hear and say separate syllables in words
• Orally blend sounds and syllables into words
• Recognize that letters form words and words form sentences
• Identify words related to pictures
• Follow words from left to right and top to bottom of page
• ## Physical Development and Health

• Is able to run.
• Is able to walk a straight line.
• Is able to jump.
• Is able to hop.
• Is able to alternate feet walking down stairs.
• Is able to march.
• Is able to stand on one foot for 5-10 seconds.
• Is able to walk backwards for five feet.
• Is able to throw a ball.
• Pastes objects.
• Claps hands.
• Matches simple objects.
• Touches fingers.
• Able to button a garment.
• Builds with blocks.
• Completes simple puzzles (5 pieces or less).
• Draws and colors beyond a simple scribble.
• Able to zip a zipper.
• Controls pencil and crayon well.
• Cuts simple shapes.
• Handles scissors well.
• Able to copy simple shapes.

## Arts

(NB:  Contingent on physical or other limitations)

• Participate in group movement activities
• Move to different musical beats and rhythms
• Dance to different types of music
• Experiment with musical instruments
• Act out events or stories using language and props
• Participate in group music activities
• Sing familiar songs, chants, and finger plays
• Initiate and select music and movement activities
• Sing familiar songs from memory and learn new songs
• Improvise songs and rhythmic patterns
• Use props to enhance movement captivities
• Represent fantasy and real-life experiences through pretend play
• Create and use props and costumes during dramatic play
• Demonstrate understanding of color, shape, and line
• Participate in teacher-guided visual arts activities
• Use a variety of art materials and techniques to make various art creations (child-safe chalk, pencils, crayons, markers, clay, play dough, paint, wood, etc.)
• Manipulate materials with pounding, squeezing, rolling, and cutting
• Explore ideas and themes independently with art materials
• Use art for self-expression of ideas, personality, or thoughts
• Show imagination and creativity in creation of visual arts
• Draw a self-portrait
• Use age-appropriate digital media applications to create works of art
• Use art tools and processes as intended
• Show appropriate audience behavior when viewing art performances
• Describe and respond to creative works

## Technology

• Follow directions to operate software programs
• Listen to texts presented in electronic forms
• Use basic computer skills (turn on computer, use keyboard and mouse)
• Operates sound recording device
• Create songs, drawings, or stories through interaction with available technology
• Communicate digitally with available technology
• Use basic skills of other digital devices (mp3 player, cell phone, tablet, etc.)
• Know age-appropriate practices for safe use of technology

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