CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR GRADE 10

LANGUAGE ARTS

Reading Literature and Informational Text and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

• Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text

• Cite evidence from text to support analysis of primary and secondary sources

• Identify the theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development

• Identify in detail a series of events described and the relationships among them

• Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies

• Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts

• Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks

• Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several sources

• Analyze how characters develop and how this advances the theme or plot

• Analyze how a text unfolds a series of events and the connections among them

• Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text

• Analyze how the author’s structural choices, order of events, and use of time create effects, such as tension or surprise

• Analyze a particular point of view or experience reflected in a work of world literature

• Analyze how an author transforms source material from an earlier work by a previous author

• Determine author’s purpose or point of view and how rhetoric is used to advance that purpose or point of view

• Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually

• Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to contribute to the meaning or tone of a text

• Compare the point of view or claims of two or more authors on similar topics

• Identify and evaluate the argument, reasoning, and evidence in a text

• Analyze and compare various accounts of a subject told in different media

• Analyze significant U.S. (or home country) historical and literary documents

• By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency

Speaking and Listening

• Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics

• Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions

• Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions

• Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas

• Integrate into speech preparation diverse sources of information in a variety of

formats

• Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of rhetoric and evidence

• Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence

• Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and

details

• Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking

• Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations

• Adapt speech to a variety of tasks, showing command of formal English

Writing

• Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including

arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics

• Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including

arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics

• Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion

• Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience

• Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting

• Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events

• Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing

• Contribute to collaborative group writing projects

• Conduct short and sustained research projects on a topic through investigation

• Draw and cite evidence from a variety of texts to support analysis

• Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources

• Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism

• Include evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis

• Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences

(including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

English Language Skills

• Show a command of conventions of standard English grammar and usage when

writing or speaking

• Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and

spelling)

• Make effective choices of language for meaning and style when writing or speaking

• Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each

Vocabulary

• Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings

• Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words

• Use relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning

• Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, or to find

its pronunciation or part of speech

• Interpret and use figurative language in context

• Distinguish shades of meaning among related words

• Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations

• Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary

MATHEMATICS

Geometry

• Definitions of angle, circle, point, distance, line segment, line, perpendicular and

parallel lines

• Rotations, reflections, and translations of lines in the plane

• Transformations in terms of vertices, sides, angles, circles, lines, parallel lines, line

segments, and perpendicular lines

• Rotations, reflections, and translations of polygons

• Sequence of transformations to carry one figure into another

• Angles and sums of angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal

• Congruence of two figures

• Criteria for triangle congruence

• Proving geometric theorems about lines, angles, and parallelograms

• Geometric constructions and bisections (including digital)

• Similarity

• Pythagorean Theorem and its converse

• Trigonometric ratios in right triangles

• Solving problems with trigonometric ratios in right triangles

• Trigonometry in general triangles

• Similarity of circles

• Elements of circles and relationships between them

• Constructing inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle

• Constructing tangents

• Arc lengths and areas of circle sectors

• Applying theorems about circles

• Deriving equations of parabola, ellipse, hyperbola, and center

• Proving theorems algebraically using coordinates

• Using coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically

• Proving slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines

• Finding the bisecting point on a line segment

• Computing perimeters and areas

• Explaining and using formulas for circumference, circle area, and volume of a

cylinder, sphere, cone, and pyramid

• Cavalieri’s principle

• Shapes of two-dimensional slices of three-dimensional objects

• Geometric concepts in describing objects, modeling situations, and solving design

problems

• Solving real world problems with geometric concepts and formulas

SCIENCE

Earth Science

• The universe and its stars

• The sun and its chemical processes

• Stars, their light, brightness, and movement

• Electromagnetic radiation

• Structure of and forces in the solar system

• Movements of objects in the solar system

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• Patterns of apparent motion of the sun, moon, and stars

• Sun, Earth, and moon relationships

• Moon phases and tides

• Theories of Earth’s origin

• Earth’s history

• Geologic time, rock strata and the fossil record

• Radioactive dating

• Earth systems and their interactions

• Plate tectonics and large-scale interactions

• Structure and properties of Earth

• Minerals, rocks, and soil

• Changes in Earth’s surface

• Role of water in Earth changes

• Ocean features and movement

• Earth’s atmosphere

• Weather and climate

• Changes in climate

• Earth’s natural resources and resource use

• Renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

• Human impact on Earth systems

• Environmental concerns and conservation

HEALTH AND SAFETY

• Gaining, analyzing, and applying health information

• Knowledge about and use of available health services

• Health choices and long-term consequences of choices

• Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health

• Personal health profile and plan

• Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health

• Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health

• Marketing and advertising effects on health behavior

• Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems

• Causes and effects of poor body image

• Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment

• Changes in anatomy during puberty

• Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health

• Reproductive processes; healthy development of fetus

• Consequences of sexual activity

• Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active

• of healthy relationships and dating behaviors

• Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety

• Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention

• Laws relating to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other controlled substances

• Treatment options for drug and other addictions

• Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities

• Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response

• Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other controlled

substances

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• Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drugs and such unsafe situations as

date rape, sexually-transmitted disease, and drinking and driving

• Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs

• Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries

• Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs

• Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations

• Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques

• Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control

• Appropriate ways to express emotions

• Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community

• Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying

• Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others

• Getting personal support from family

SOCIAL SCIENCE

World History: The Modern World

• Influences on the development of western political thought

• Glorious Revolution of England

• American Revolution

• French Revolution

• Influences of the revolutions of 1688-1799 on government and individual liberty

• The Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States

• Emergence of Romanticism

• Global changes brought about by European imperialism

• Causes and course of World War I

• Effects of World War I

• Russian Revolution

• Totalitarian governments after World War I

• German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s

• United States isolationism prior to World War II

• Rise of the Nazi party in Germany

• The Holocaust

• Causes and course of World War II

• Consequences of World War II

• International developments after World War II

• Causes, course, and effects of the Cold War

• The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan

• The Chinese Civil War and upheavals in China

• Nationalism in the Middle East

• Establishment of Israel

• Collapse of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War

• Work of the UN, SEATO, NATO, and the OAS

• Globalization and the spread of capitalism

• Effects of information, technological, and communications revolutions

• Connectedness and cooperation of countries in the world economy

• Current conflicts in the modern world

• Global issues in the modern world

• Features of increasing globalization

• Revival and maintenance of traditional cultures in the face of globalization

• Purpose, roles, and work of some key international organizations

• Examples of global interdependence and cooperation

ARTS

Note about high school arts curriculum: High school curriculum generally requires some sort

of study and credit in the arts. Most schools offer experiences and study in a variety of areas

in the arts. Some examples are:

• Animation

• Architecture

• Casting

• Ceramics

• Choral music

• Computer graphics and applications

• Construction

• Dance or other creative movement

• Digital arts

• Drama (including mime, storytelling, and technical aspects of theater)

• Drawing

• Film

• Graphic design

• Improvisational music

• Instrumental music

• Jewelry-making

• Metal Sculpture

• Mosaics

• Painting

• Photography

• Printmaking

• Sculpture

• Textiles and fiber art

In the study and practice of any of the performance or visual arts, students encounter such

topics and sharpen such skills as:

• Watching, listening, and responding to works of art

• Background and elements of particular art form

• Understanding of the processes and techniques of particular forms

• Principles of design

• Vocabulary of particular art forms

• Interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of works of art

• Reflecting on own experiences and creations or performances

• Art history

• Well-known artists and works of visual or performing art forms

• Cultural contexts and expressions of art

• Style, materials, and techniques used in a work of art

• Generating questions about a work of art

• Considering messages and purposes of a particular work of art

• Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art

• Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art

• Reflecting on the contributions of artists to society

• Careers in art

• Discipline and mindset for improving and developing skills in art

• Fostering of creativity and self-expression

• Development of artistic awareness, imagination, perception, skill

• Experimenting with a variety of media, forms, and techniques

• Solving design problems

• Use of digital media and tools for producing, viewing, or responding to art

• Polishing and furthering personal skills in a chosen area of art

• Participation in collaborative discussions about works of art

• Participation in collaborative creation of works of art

• Proper safety procedures for activities in the specific arts

TECHNOLOGY

General goal for high school students: Use technology within all content areas to

collaborate, communicate, generate innovative ideas, create original works, and

investigate and solve problems.

• Demonstrating proficient keyboarding skills

• Understanding of operating system tools, applications, and storage devices

• Use of a variety of common applications and productivity tools

• Creating products combining text, images, sound, music, and video

• Creating and publishing stories, games, animations, problems, and solutions

• Creating Web pages

• Use of spreadsheet and concept-mapping software

• Use of interactive tools to design polls or surveys to gather data

• Making contributions to blogs, wikis, and other digital collaborative forums

• Use of online databases or simulation software to interpret and predict trends

• Increasing knowledge about many cultures through digital content

• Communicating with multiple audiences through a variety of formats and media

• Increasing understanding of a local or global issue

• Researching and using information fluently

• Choosing appropriate search engines, directories, and online applications

• Selecting appropriate, relevant sources for a purpose or audience

• Analysis and synthesis of information to make decisions or develop solutions

• Assessing the credibility and validity of online sources

• Use of bibliography tools to cite sources from digital sources

• Reporting and sharing results or solutions

• Exploring ways to receive feedback from multiple, appropriate audiences

• Demonstrate understanding and avoidance of potential online dangers

• Understanding health hazards of frequent technology use

• Demonstrating safe and legal use of online sites and information

• Use of passwords, virus prevention, and other protective procedures

• Understanding risks of social networking sites; safe sharing of personal information

online

• Understanding privacy issues and how data are kept and available publicly

• Practicing ethical and respectful behavior online

• Careful, responsible use and maintenance of digital equipment

• Demonstrating openness to learning new technologies and procedures