CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR GRADE 10

ARTS

    Note about middle school arts curriculum: Middle-level curriculum often includes and offers experiences and study in a variety of areas in the arts. Some examples are:

    • Ÿ Animation
    • Ÿ Architecture
    • Ÿ Casting
    • Ÿ Ceramics
    • Ÿ Choral music
    • Ÿ Computer graphics and applications
    • Ÿ Construction
    • Ÿ Dance or other creative movement
    • Ÿ Digital arts
    • Ÿ Drama (including mime, storytelling, and technical aspects of theater)
    • Ÿ Drawing
    • Ÿ Film
    • Ÿ Graphic design
    • Ÿ Improvisational music
    • Ÿ Instrumental music
    • Ÿ Metal Sculpture
    • Ÿ Mosaics
    • Ÿ Sculpture
    • Ÿ Textiles and fiber art

    In the study and practice of any of the performance or visual arts, students encounter such topics as:

    • Ÿ Skills of watching, listening, and responding to works of art
    • Ÿ Background and elements of particular art form
    • Ÿ Understanding of the processes and techniques of particular forms
    • Ÿ Principles of design
    • Ÿ Vocabulary of particular art forms
    • Ÿ Interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of works of art
    • Ÿ Reflecting on own experiences and creations or performances
    • Ÿ Art history
    • Ÿ Well-known artists and works of visual or performing art form
    • Ÿ Cultural contexts and expressions of art
    • Ÿ Style, materials, and techniques used in a work of art
    • Ÿ Generating questions about a work of art
    • Ÿ Considering messages and purposes of a particular work of art
    • Ÿ Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art
    • Ÿ Contributions of artists to society
    • Ÿ Careers in art
    • Ÿ Discipline and mindset for improving and developing skills in art
    • Ÿ Fostering of creativity and self-expression
    • Ÿ Development of artistic awareness, imagination, perception, skill
    • Ÿ Experimenting with a variety of media, forms, and techniques
    • Ÿ Solving design problems
    • Ÿ Use of digital media and tools for producing, viewing, or responding to art
    • Ÿ Polishing and furthering personal skills in a chosen area of art
    • Ÿ Participation in collaborative discussions about works of art
    • Ÿ Participation in collaborative creation of works of art
    • Ÿ Proper safety procedures for activities in the specific arts

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HEALTH AND SAFETY
  • Gaining, analyzing, and applying health information
  • Knowledge about and use of available health services
  • Health choices and long-term consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health
  • Personal health profile and plan
  • Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health
  • Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Marketing and advertising effects on health behavior
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • Causes and effects of poor body image
  • Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment
  • Changes in anatomy during puberty
  • Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health
  • Reproductive processes; healthy development of fetus
  • Consequences of sexual activity
  • Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active
  • ofhealthy relationships and dating behaviors
  • Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety
  • Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • Laws relating to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other controlled substances
  • Treatment options for drug and other addictions
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response
  • Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other controlled substances
  • Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drugs and such unsafe situations as date rape, sexually-transmitted disease, and drinking and driving
  • Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs
  • Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries
  • Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control
  • Appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Getting personal support from family

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Language Arts
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of primary and secondary sources
  • Identify the theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development
  • Identify in detail a series of events described and the relationships among them
  • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
  • Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several sources
  • Analyze how characters develop and how this advances the theme or plot
  • Analyze how a text unfolds a series of events and the connections among them
  • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
  • Analyze how the author’s structural choices, order of events, and use of time create specific effects, such as tension or surprise
  • Analyze a particular point of view or experience reflected in a work of world literature
  • Analyze how an author transforms source material from an earlier work by a previous author
  • Determine author’s purpose or point of view and how rhetoric is used to advance that purpose or point of view
  • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
  • Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to contribute to the meaning or tone of a text
  • Compare the point of view or claims of two or more authors on similar topics
  • Identify and evaluate the argument, reasoning, and evidence in a text
  • Analyze and compare various accounts of a subject told in different media
  • Analyze significant U.S. (or home country) historical and literary documents
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
  • Integrate into speech preparation diverse sources of information in a variety of formats
  • Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of rhetoric and evidence
  • Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
  • Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • Adapt speech to a variety of tasks, showing command of formal English
  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
  • Use relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning
  • Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, or to find its pronunciation or part of speech
  • Interpret and use figurative language in context
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
  • Show a command of conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
  • Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • Make effective choices of language for meaning and style when writing or speaking
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
  • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
  • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
  • Conduct short and sustained research projects on a topic through investigation
  • Draw and cite evidence from a variety of texts to support analysis
  • Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
  • Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
  • Include evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

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MATHEMATICS
  • Definitions of angle, circle, point, distance, line segment, line, perpendicular and parallel lines
  • Rotations, reflections, and translations of lines in the plane
  • Transformations in terms of vertices, sides, angles, circles, lines, parallel lines, line segments, and perpendicular lines
  • Rotations, reflections, and translations of polygons
  • Sequence of transformations to carry one figure into another
  • Angles and sums of angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal
  • Congruence of two figures
  • Criteria for triangle congruence
  • Proving geometric theorems about lines, angles, and parallelograms
  • Geometric constructions and bisections (including digital)
  • Similarity
  • Pythagorean Theorem and its converse
  • Trigonometric ratios in right triangles
  • Solving problems with trigonometric ratios in right triangles
  • Trigonometry in general triangles
  • Similarity of circles
  • Elements of circles and relationships between them
  • Constructing inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle
  • Constructing tangents
  • Arc lengths and areas of circle sectors
  • Applying theorems about circles
  • Deriving equations of parabola, ellipse, hyperbola, and center
  • Proving theorems algebraically using coordinates
  • Using coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically
  • Proving slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines
  • Finding the bisecting point on a line segment
  • Computing perimeters and areas
  • Explaining and using formulas for circumference, circle area, and volume of a cylinder, sphere, cone, and pyramid
  • Cavalieri’s principle
  • Shapes of two-dimensional slices of three-dimensional objects
  • Geometric concepts in describing objects, modeling situations, and solving design problems
  • Solving real world problems with geometric concepts and formulas

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SCIENCE
  • The universe and its stars
  • The sun and its chemical processes
  • Stars, their light, brightness, and movement
  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Structure of and forces in the solar system
  • Movements of objects in the solar system
  • Patterns of apparent motion of the sun, moon, and stars
  • Sun, Earth, and moon relationships
  • Moon phases and tides
  • Theories of Earth’s origin
  • Earth’s history
  • Geologic time, rock strata and the fossil record
  • Radioactive dating
  • Earth systems and their interactions
  • Plate tectonics and large-scale interactions
  • Structure and properties of Earth
  • Minerals, rocks, and soil
  • Changes in Earth’s surface
  • Role of water in Earth changes
  • Ocean features and movement
  • Earth’s atmosphere
  • Weather and climate
  • Changes in climate
  • Earth’s natural resources and resource use
  • Renewable and nonrenewable energy sources
  • Human impact on Earth systems
  • Environmental concerns and conservation

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SOCIAL SCIENCE
  • Influences on the development of western political thought
  • Glorious Revolution of England
  • American Revolution
  • French Revolution
  • Influences of the revolutions of 1688-1799 on government and individual liberty
  • The Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States
  • Emergence of Romanticism
  • Global changes brought about by European imperialism
  • Causes and course of World War I
  • Effects of World War I
  • Russian Revolution
  • Totalitarian governments after World War I
  • German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s
  • United States isolationism prior to World War II
  • Rise of the Nazi party in Germany
  • The Holocaust
  • Causes and course of World War II
  • Consequences of World War II
  • International developments after World War II
  • Causes, course, and effects of the Cold War
  • The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
  • The Chinese Civil War and upheavals in China
  • Nationalism in the Middle East
  • Establishment of Israel
  • Collapse of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War
  • Work of the UN, SEATO, NATO, and the OAS
  • Globalization and the spread of capitalism
  • Effects of information, technological, and communications revolutions
  • Connectedness and cooperation of countries in the world economy
  • Current conflicts in the modern world
  • Global issues in the modern world
  • Features of increasing globalization
  • Revival and maintenance of traditional cultures in the face of globalization
  • Purpose, roles, and work of some key international organizations
  • Examples of global interdependence and cooperation

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TECHNOLOGY

    General goal for high school students: Use technology within all content areas to collaborate, communicate, generate innovative ideas, create original works, and investigate and solve problems.

    • Demonstrating proficient keyboarding skills
    • Understanding of operating system tools, applications, and storage devices
    • Use of a variety of common applications and productivity tools
    • Creating products combining text, images, sound, music, and video
    • Creating and publishing stories, games, animations, problems, and solutions
    • Creating Web pages
    • Use of spreadsheet and concept-mapping software
    • Use of interactive tools to design polls or surveys to gather data
    • Making contributions to blogs, wikis, and other digital collaborative forums
    • Use of online databases or simulation software to interpret and predict trends
    • Increasing knowledge about many cultures through digital content
    • Communicating with multiple audiences through a variety of formats and media
    • Increasing understanding of a local or global issue
    • Researching and using information fluently
    • Choosing appropriate search engines, directories, and online applications
    • Selecting appropriate, relevant sources for a purpose or audience
    • Analysis and synthesis of information to make decisions or develop solutions
    • Assessing the credibility and validity of online sources
    • Use of bibliography tools to cite sources from digital sources
    • Reporting and sharing results or solutions
    • Exploring ways to receive feedback from multiple, appropriate audiences
    • Demonstrate understanding and avoidance of potential online dangers
    • Understanding health hazards of frequent technology use
    • Demonstrating safe and legal use of online sites and information
    • Use of passwords, virus prevention, and other protective procedures
    • Understanding risks of social networking sites; safe sharing of personal information online
    • Understanding privacy issues and how data are kept and available publicly
    • Practicing ethical and respectful behavior online
    • Careful, responsible use and maintenance of digital equipment
    • Demonstrating openness to learning new technologies and procedure