CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR GRADE 12

ARTS

    Note about high school arts curriculum: High school curriculum generally requires some sort of study and credit in the arts. Most schools offer experiences and study in a variety of areas in the arts. Some examples are:

    • Ÿ Animation
    • Ÿ Architecture
    • Ÿ Casting
    • Ÿ Ceramics
    • Ÿ Choral music
    • Ÿ Computer graphics and applications
    • Ÿ Construction
    • Ÿ Dance or other creative movement
    • Ÿ Digital arts
    • Ÿ Drama (including mime, storytelling, and technical aspects of theater)
    • Ÿ Drawing
    • Ÿ Film
    • Ÿ Graphic design
    • Ÿ Improvisational music
    • Ÿ Instrumental music
    • Ÿ Metal Sculpture
    • Ÿ Mosaics
    • Ÿ Painting
    • Ÿ Photography
    • Ÿ Printmaking
    • Ÿ Sculpture
    • Ÿ Textiles and fiber art

    In the study and practice of any of the performance or visual arts, students encounter such topics as:

    • Ÿ Skills of watching, listening, and responding to works of art
    • Ÿ Background and elements of particular art form
    • Ÿ Understanding of the processes and techniques of particular forms
    • Ÿ Principles of design
    • Ÿ Vocabulary of particular art forms
    • Ÿ Interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of works of art
    • Ÿ Reflecting on own experiences and creations or performances
    • Ÿ Art history
    • Ÿ Well-known artists and works of visual or performing art form
    • Ÿ Cultural contexts and expressions of art
    • Ÿ Style, materials, and techniques used in a work of art
    • Ÿ Generating questions about a work of art
    • Ÿ Considering messages and purposes of a particular work of art
    • Ÿ Responding orally, in writing, or some other way to works of art
    • Ÿ Contributions of artists to society
    • Ÿ Careers in art
    • Ÿ Discipline and mindset for improving and developing skills in art
    • Ÿ Fostering of creativity and self-expression
    • Ÿ Development of artistic awareness, imagination, perception, skill
    • Ÿ Experimenting with a variety of media, forms, and techniques
    • Ÿ Solving design problems
    • Ÿ Use of digital media and tools for producing, viewing, or responding to art
    • Ÿ Polishing and furthering personal skills in a chosen area of art
    • Ÿ Participation in collaborative discussions about works of art
    • Ÿ Participation in collaborative creation of works of art
    • Ÿ Proper safety procedures for activities in the specific arts

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HEALTH AND SAFETY
  • Gaining, analyzing, and applying health information
  • Knowledge about and use of available health services
  • Health choices and long-term consequences of choices
  • Benefits of, practices for, and personal responsibility for health
  • Personal health profile and plan
  • Interrelationships of physical, mental, and social health
  • Impacts of social pressures on physical, emotional, and social health
  • Marketing and advertising effects on health behavior
  • Structure, functions, and interdependence of major body systems
  • Causes and effects of poor body image
  • Eating disorders and their prevention and treatment
  • Changes in anatomy during puberty
  • Role of hormones in growth, development, and personal health
  • Reproductive processes; healthy development of fetus
  • Consequences of sexual activity
  • Strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active
  • ofhealthy relationships and dating behaviors
  • Lifelong strategies for identifying and preventing depression and anxiety
  • Myths and facts related to disease transmission and prevention
  • Laws relating to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other controlled substances
  • Treatment options for drug and other addictions
  • Basic safety rules for daily and recreational activities
  • Understanding of first-aid procedures and emergency response
  • Use, abuse, and effects of medications, tobacco, alcohol, and other controlled substances
  • Relationship between tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drugs and such unsafe situations as date rape, sexually-transmitted disease, and drinking and driving
  • Preventing the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs
  • Prevention of and response to deliberate and accidental injuries
  • Reasons and ways to avoid violence, gangs, weapons, and drugs
  • Skills to identify, avoid, report, and cope with potentially dangerous situations
  • Positive and negative characteristics of social groups, gangs, clubs, cliques
  • Development of self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-control
  • Appropriate ways to express emotions
  • Positive social interactions with peers, in home, and in the community
  • Bullying, alternative behaviors to bullying, and appropriate responses to bullying
  • Strategies for resolving conflicts with peers and others
  • Getting personal support from family

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LANGUAGE ARTS
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of both explicit and implicit messages within the text
  • Cite evidence from text to support analysis of primary and secondary sources
  • Identify the theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development
  • Identify in detail a series of events described and the relationships among them
  • Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history or social studies
  • Summarize literary and informational or explanatory texts
  • Follow a multistep written procedure when performing science or technical tasks
  • Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several sources
  • Analyze how characters develop and how this advances the theme or plot
  • Analyze how a text unfolds a series of events and the connections among them
  • Determine meanings and effects of words, phrases, or symbols as used in a text
  • Analyze how the author’s structural choices, order of events, and use of time create specific effects, such as tension or surprise
  • Analyze a particular point of view or experience reflected in a work of world literature
  • Analyze how an author transforms source material from an earlier work by a previous author
  • Determine author’s purpose or point of view and how rhetoric is used to advance that purpose or point of view
  • Integrate quantitative or technical information presented in text form with information expressed visually
  • Explain how visual and multimedia elements help to contribute to the meaning or tone of a text
  • Compare the point of view or claims of two or more authors on similar topics
  • Identify and evaluate the argument, reasoning, and evidence in a text
  • Analyze and compare various accounts of a subject told in different media
  • Analyze significant U.S. (or home country) historical and literary documents
  • By the end of the academic year, read and understand grade-level literary and informational texts (including history/social studies, science, and technical subjects) independently and with proficiency
  • Participate in collaborative discussions on a variety of grade-level topics
  • Express ideas clearly and respectfully in group discussions
  • Follow agreed-upon rules and preparation procedures for discussions
  • Ask questions and respond to others, building on others’ ideas
  • Integrate into speech preparation diverse sources of information in a variety of formats
  • Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of rhetoric and evidence
  • Identify an argument, claims; evaluate the soundness of reasoning and evidence
  • Present claims or information in logical sequence supported with relevant facts and details
  • Use clear pronunciation and appropriate eye contact and volume when speaking
  • Add multimedia and visual components to clarify ideas in presentations
  • Adapt speech to a variety of tasks, showing command of formal English
  • Use context clues to determine word and phrase meanings
  • Use word structure clues to determine meanings of unknown words
  • Use relationships between words to better understand each word’s meaning
  • Use references (print and digital) to determine or verify a word’s meanings, or to find its pronunciation or part of speech
  • Interpret and use figurative language in context
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations
  • Distinguish shades of meaning among related words
  • Distinguish among connotations of words with similar denotations
  • Learn and use grade-level general academic vocabulary
  • Show a command of conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
  • Correctly use conventions of English when writing (capitalization, punctuation, and spelling)
  • Make effective choices of language for meaning and style when writing or speaking
  • Know the difference between formal and informal English and when to use each
  • Write arguments supported with clear reasons and relevant evidence, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write informative or explanatory pieces developed with relevant details, including arguments in history, social studies, science, and technical topics
  • Write narrations that include details, put events in order, and provide a conclusion
  • Produce writing appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience
  • Strengthen writing by getting feedback, revising, editing, and rewriting
  • Add dialogue and descriptions to develop characters and events
  • Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing
  • Contribute to collaborative group writing projects
  • Conduct short and sustained research projects on a topic through investigation
  • Draw and cite evidence from a variety of texts to support analysis
  • Assess the credibility and accuracy of sources
  • Quote or paraphrase data and conclusions while avoiding plagiarism
  • Include evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis
  • Regularly produce clear writing for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences (including writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects)

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MATHEMATICS
  • Exponents and scientific notation
  • Radicals and rational exponents
  • Polynomials
  • Factoring polynomials
  • Rational expressions
  • Linear equations and inequalities
  • Quadratic equations
  • Systems of equations
  • Graphs of linear equations
  • Lines and slopes
  • Distance and midpoint formulas
  • Vectors and operations on vectors
  • Matrices and operations on matrices
  • Applications of matrices
  • Basic functions and properties of functions
  • Interpreting and analyzing functions
  • Combinations of functions
  • Graphs of functions
  • Transformations of functions
  • Modeling with functions
  • Complex number system
  • Arithmetic operations with complex numbers
  • Quadratic functions and applications
  • Polynomials functions and graphs
  • Zeros of polynomial functions
  • Rational functions and graphs
  • Polynomial and rational inequalities
  • One-to-one functions
  • Inverse functions
  • Exponential functions
  • Logarithmic functions
  • Properties of logarithms
  • Logarithmic and exponential equations
  • Exponential growth and decay
  • Logistic growth and decay
  • Modeling with exponential and logarithmic functions
  • Trigonometric functions
  • Trigonometric equations
  • The unit circle
  • Angles and their measure
  • Right triangle trigonometry
  • Trigonometric identities and proof
  • Trigonometric functions of any angle
  • Law of Sines and Law of Cosines
  • Graphs of sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, cosecant, and secant functions
  • Inverse trigonometric functions
  • Applications of trigonometric functions
  • Sum and difference formulas
  • Double-angle and half-angle identities
  • Definition of statistics and data
  • Statistical questions
  • Summarizing and representing data, including with technology programs and models
  • Interpreting models of data
  • Definitions of mean, median, and mode
  • Computation of mean, median, and mode from a data set
  • Shape, center, and spread of data sets
  • Extreme points in data
  • Relative frequencies, possible associations, and trends
  • Relationships between data items
  • Variance and standard deviation
  • Line of best fit to a given data distribution
  • Mean and standard deviation to estimate population percentage
  • Correlation coefficient of two variables
  • Sampling distribution and population distribution
  • Random sampling
  • Evaluating random processes
  • Margin of error for random sampling
  • Uses of statistical data
  • Making inferences from surveys, observations, and experiments
  • Conditional probability
  • Probabilities of compound events
  • Probabilities of mutually exclusive and non-mutually exclusive events
  • Probabilities for independent events
  • Probabilities for dependent events
  • Permutations and combinations
  • Expected value of a random variable
  • Interpreting results of probability experiments
  • Odds in favor and odds against an occurrence
  • Using probability to make decisions
  • Using probability to solve real-world problems

SCIENCE - PHYSICS
  • Laws of conservation of energy
  • Energy transfer
  • Energy in chemical processes
  • Measurement and mathematics for physics
  • Force and calculations of force
  • Force fields
  • Kinematics
  • Statics and dynamics
  • Relative motion
  • Concepts of distance, displacement, speed, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and acceleration
  • Relationships between force and motion
  • Gravitation
  • Friction
  • Momentum
  • Definitions of energy and forms of energy
  • Work and energy
  • Laws of thermodynamics
  • Electric fields, currents, and circuits
  • Magnetism
  • Wave properties and behaviors
  • Real-world applications of wave behaviors
  • Light
  • Wave-particle duality
  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Electromagnetic spectrum
  • Nuclear structure and processes
  • Atomic and nuclear phenomena
  • Real-world atomic and nuclear applications
  • Quantum phenomena
  • Particle physics
  • Safe practices during investigation

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SOCIAL SCIENCE
  • Foundations of the U.S. government
  • Major traditions informing the founding of the U.S.
  • Characteristics of and political ideas behind a constitutional government
  • Contributions of key individuals to the founding political philosophies
  • Federalism
  • U.S Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and other significant documents
  • Amendments to the Constitution; the amendment process
  • Structure of the U.S. government
  • Powers of the federal and state governments, and shared powers
  • Historical conflicts over the roles of state and federal governments
  • Executive branch: structure, powers, functions, agencies, and cabinet
  • Legislative branch: structure, powers, functions, committees
  • Judicial branch: structure, powers, functions
  • Limits on the powers of government and on each branch
  • Checks and balances; separation of powers
  • How laws are made
  • The U.S. Supreme Court; key court decisions
  • State and local governments
  • Other governmental agencies and organizations
  • Voting, campaigns, and elections; voting rights
  • Electoral college and electoral processes
  • Political parties and the political process
  • Government finances and taxes
  • Policy making process
  • Fiscal policy
  • Social and domestic policy
  • Foreign and defense policy
  • Economic policy
  • Environmental policy
  • Influence of political parties, interest groups, public, and media on public policy
  • Civil rights and civil liberties
  • Equality and due process
  • Personal liberties and social responsibility
  • Personal liberty and safety
  • Responsibilities of citizens
  • Freedom of the press
  • National security
  • Military service
  • Social welfare
  • Impact of science and technology on government and society
  • Key issues facing the government
  • Compare political systems with other countries
  • International relationships and interconnectedness
  • Market economy; free enterprise system
  • Characteristics of the United States economy
  • Kinds of resources; scarcity of resources
  • Economic decision making
  • Costs and benefits
  • Allocation of goods and services
  • Incentives
  • International trade and exchange rates
  • Specialization
  • Markets and prices; role of prices
  • Supply and demand
  • Profits and losses
  • Competition and market structure
  • Economic institutions
  • Other institutions that influence economics
  • Jobs, employer and employee issues, rights of workers
  • Human productivity
  • Business cycles
  • Moral, ethical, and legal business issues
  • Money and inflation
  • Interest, credit, and debt
  • Income
  • Investment
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Economic growth; measuring economic performance
  • Economic role of government in a market economy
  • Government failure
  • Economic fluctuations and economic indicators
  • Unemployment and inflation
  • Fiscal and monetary policy
  • Global economic dependence
  • Effects of technology on economies and economic practices
  • World financial issues
  • Comparison of economic systems
  • Personal financial literacy

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TECHNOLOGY

    General goal for high school students: Use technology within all content areas to collaborate, communicate, generate innovative ideas, create original works, and investigate and solve problems.

    • Demonstrating proficient keyboarding skills
    • Understanding of operating system tools, applications, and storage devices
    • Use of a variety of common applications and productivity tools
    • Creating products combining text, images, sound, music, and video
    • Creating and publishing stories, games, animations, problems, and solutions
    • Creating Web pages
    • Use of spreadsheet and concept-mapping software
    • Use of interactive tools to design polls or surveys to gather data
    • Making contributions to blogs, wikis, and other digital collaborative forums
    • Use of online databases or simulation software to interpret and predict trends
    • Increasing knowledge about many cultures through digital content
    • Communicating with multiple audiences through a variety of formats and media
    • Increasing understanding of a local or global issue
    • Researching and using information fluently
    • Choosing appropriate search engines, directories, and online applications
    • Selecting appropriate, relevant sources for a purpose or audience
    • Analysis and synthesis of information to make decisions or develop solutions
    • Assessing the credibility and validity of online sources
    • Use of bibliography tools to cite sources from digital sources
    • Reporting and sharing results or solutions
    • Exploring ways to receive feedback from multiple, appropriate audiences
    • Demonstrate understanding and avoidance of potential online dangers
    • Understanding health hazards of frequent technology use
    • Demonstrating safe and legal use of online sites and information
    • Use of passwords, virus prevention, and other protective procedures
    • Understanding risks of social networking sites; safe sharing of personal information online
    • Understanding privacy issues and how data are kept and available publicly
    • Practicing ethical and respectful behavior online
    • Careful, responsible use and maintenance of digital equipment
    • Demonstrating openness to learning new technologies and procedure